The balance-of-payments constraint:from balanced trade to sustainable debt
This paper extends the balance-of-payments constraint on growth known as Thirlwall's law to incorporate unbalanced trade and debt accumulation. Assuming that small open economies face a liquidity constraint, the text shows the growth and real-exchange-rate policy rules consistent with a stable ratio of net exports to income. Given such rules, the text shows how the trade balance of a small open economy is residually determined by the ratio of foreign debt to income allowed by international conditions.
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- Alexander, R. & King, A., 1998. "Growth and the Balance-of-Payment Constraint," Department of Economics - Working Papers Series 622, The University of Melbourne.
- Anthony Philip Thirlwall, 1979.
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Banca Nazionale del Lavoro Quarterly Review,
Banca Nazionale del Lavoro, vol. 32(128), pages 45-53.
- Anthony P. Thirlwall, 2011. "The Balance of Payments Constraint as an Explanation of International Growth Rate Differences," PSL Quarterly Review, Economia civile, vol. 64(259), pages 429-438.
- Anthony Philip Thirlwall, 1979. "The Balance of Payments Constraint as an Explanation of International Growth Rate Differences," BNL Quarterly Review, Banca Nazionale del Lavoro, vol. 32(128), pages 45-53.
- Juan Carlos Moreno-Brid, 1999. "On Capital Flows and the Balance-of-Payments-Constrained Growth Model," Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, M.E. Sharpe, Inc., vol. 21(2), pages 283-298, January.
- Terra, Maria Cristina T., 1999. "Finance and changing trade patterns in Brazil," Economics Working Papers (Ensaios Economicos da EPGE) 354, FGV/EPGE Escola Brasileira de Economia e Finanças, Getulio Vargas Foundation (Brazil).
- Thirlwall, Anthony P & Hussain, Mohammed Nureldin, 1982. "The Balance of Payments Constraint, Capital Flows and Growth Rate Differences between Developing Countries," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 34(3), pages 498-510, November.
- Paul Krugman, 1988.
"Differences In Income Elasticities and Trends in Real Exchange Rates,"
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2761, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Krugman, Paul, 1989. "Differences in income elasticities and trends in real exchange rates," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 1031-1046, May.
- Nelson H. Barbosa Filho, 2001. "International Liquidity and Growth in Brazil," SCEPA working paper series. SCEPA's main areas of research are macroeconomic policy, inequality and poverty, and globalization. 2001-04, Schwartz Center for Economic Policy Analysis (SCEPA), The New School.
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