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Prevalence and Determinants of Social Entrepreneurship at the Macro-level


  • Chantal Hartog
  • Brigitte Hoogendoorn


This study deals with the prevalence and drivers of social entrepreneurship across countries. Unique large-scale and internationally comparable data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) 2009 covering 49 countries at different stages of development are used as our main data source. Hypotheses are generated from a multitude of theoretical perspectives including the failure thesis, interdependence theory, welfare state theory and supply-side theory. As regards the antecedents of the occurrence of social entrepreneurship, our findings suggest above all that social entrepreneurship is a phenomenon driven by wealth. In addition, we find a positive association between government expenditure on welfare and the prevalence of social entrepreneurship which assumes a relation of interdependence and partnership between government and social organizations. This finding supports the interdependence theory. With respect to cultural values, we postulate that a society’s level of individualism can be considered to be a driver of social entrepreneurship. This suggests that in societies where ties between individuals are loose, social entrepreneurship is more widespread.

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  • Chantal Hartog & Brigitte Hoogendoorn, 2011. "Prevalence and Determinants of Social Entrepreneurship at the Macro-level," Scales Research Reports H201022, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:eim:papers:h201022

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    Cited by:

    1. Jacob Hörisch & Jana Kollat & Steven A. Brieger, 2017. "What influences environmental entrepreneurship? A multilevel analysis of the determinants of entrepreneurs’ environmental orientation," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 48(1), pages 47-69, January.
    2. Estrin, Saul & Mickiewicz, Tomasz & Stephan, Ute, 2016. "Human capital in social and commercial entrepreneurship," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 449-467.
    3. Chantal Hartog & Brigitte Hoogendoorn & Sophie Bacq & Jan Lepoutre, 2011. "Social and commercial entrepreneurship: Exploring individual and organizational characteristics," Scales Research Reports H201110, EIM Business and Policy Research.

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