The Effects of Cultural Background and Knowledge Creation on Self-Employment and Entry Density Rates
This paper contributes to the interpretation of entrepreneurship based on the effect of knowledge and cultural background. Entrepreneurship is defined as both the self-employment and the entry density rates, comparing the two models. The present paper uses a series of variables to express these effects, which are analyzed with a principal component analysis and a regression analysis. The results confirm that cultural background strongly affects both entrepreneurship rates. Knowledge creation does not affect entrepreneurship rates, as its impact on entrepreneurship is long-lasting (it could reach more or less 10 years) and not a short-term one. Simultaneously, knowledge impact affects negatively the self-employment rates and positively the entry density rates in the economies. Furthermore, performing a sensitivity analysis on knowledge and cultural background, the conclusions confirm that cultural background has a strong interpretive role in both entrepreneurship rates. Moreover, under the new prevailing conditions the creation of knowledge and the impact of knowledge have a negative effect on self-employment, while the effect of knowledge impact is strengthened in the cases where we increase knowledge and it is weakened where we decrease the knowledge variables.
Volume (Year): 3 (2013)
Issue (Month): (May)
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 17 Alton Towers Circle, Unit 101 Toronto, ON, M1V3L8, Canada|
Web page: http://www.bapress.ca
|Order Information:|| Postal: 17 Alton Towers Circle, Unit 101 Toronto, ON, M1V3L8, Canada|
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Romer, Paul M, 1986.
"Increasing Returns and Long-run Growth,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(5), pages 1002-1037, October.
- Paul M Romer, 1999. "Increasing Returns and Long-Run Growth," Levine's Working Paper Archive 2232, David K. Levine.
- Anderson, Alistair R. & Miller, Claire J., 2003. ""Class matters": human and social capital in the entrepreneurial process," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 17-36, March.
- Baum, J. Robert & Olian, Judy D. & Erez, Miriam & Schnell, Eugene R. & Smith, Ken G. & Sims, Henry P. & Scully, Judith S. & Smith, Ken A., 1993. "Nationality and work role interactions: A cultural contrast of Israeli and U.S. entrepreneurs' versus managers' needs," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 8(6), pages 499-512, November.
- Busenitz, Lowell W. & Barney, Jay B., 1997. "Differences between entrepreneurs and managers in large organizations: Biases and heuristics in strategic decision-making," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 9-30, January.
- Sander Wennekers & André Stel & Roy Thurik & Paul Reynolds, 2008. "Nascent entrepreneurship and the level of economic development," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 30(3), pages 325-325, March.
- Sander Wennekers & André van Wennekers & Roy Thurik & Paul Reynolds, 2005. "Nascent Entrepreneurship and the Level of Economic Development," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 24(3), pages 293-309, April.
- Sander Wennekers & André van Stel & Roy Thurik & Paul Reynolds, 2005. "Nascent entrepreneurship and the level of economic development," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2005-14, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
- Michael H Morris & Duane L Davis & Jeffrey W Allen, 1994. "Fostering Corporate Entrepreneurship: Cross-Cultural Comparisons of the Importance of Individualism Versus Collectivism," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 25(1), pages 65-89, March.
- Thurik, A. Roy & Carree, Martin A. & van Stel, André & Audretsch, David B., 2008. "Does self-employment reduce unemployment?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 23(6), pages 673-686, November.
- André van Stel & Roy Thurik & David Audretsch & Martin Carree, 2005. "Does Self-Employment Reduce Unemployment?," Scales Research Reports N200504, EIM Business and Policy Research.
- André van Stel & Roy Thurik & David Audretsch & Martin Carree, 2007. "Does Self-Employment Reduce Unemployment?," Scales Research Reports H200709, EIM Business and Policy Research.
- David B. Audretsch & Roy Thurik & Andre van Stel & M.A. Carree, 2006. "Does Self-Employment Reduce Unemployment?," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2005-07, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
- A. Roy Thurik & Martin A. Carree & Andre van Stel & David B. Audretsch, 2007. "Does Self-Employment reduce Unemployment?," Jena Economic Research Papers 2007-089, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena.
- Audretsch, David B & Carree, Martin A & Thurik, A R Roy & van Stel, André, 2005. "Does Self-Employment Reduce Unemployment?," CEPR Discussion Papers 5057, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Zvi Griliches, 1998. "The Search for R&D Spillovers," NBER Chapters,in: R&D and Productivity: The Econometric Evidence, pages 251-268 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Griliches, Zvi, 1992. " The Search for R&D Spillovers," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 94(0), pages 29-47, Supplemen.
- Zvi Griliches, 1991. "The Search for R&D Spillovers," NBER Working Papers 3768, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Davidson, Russell & MacKinnon, James G., 1989. "Testing for Consistency using Artificial Regressions," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 5(03), pages 363-384, December.
- Russell Davidson & James G. MacKinnon, 1987. "Testing for Consistency using Artificial Regressions," Working Papers 687, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
- David Audretsch, 2009. "The entrepreneurial society," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 34(3), pages 245-254, June.
- Audretsch, David B., 2007. "The Entrepreneurial Society," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195183504.
- Sarasvathy, Saras D., 2003. "Entrepreneurship as a science of the artificial," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 203-220, April.
- Davidson, Russell & MacKinnon, James G., 1993. "Estimation and Inference in Econometrics," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195060119.
- P. Petrakis & P. Kostis, 2015. "The Role of Knowledge and Trust in SMEs," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 6(1), pages 105-124, March.
- Karlsson, Charlie & Friis, Christian & Paulsson, Thomas, 2004. "Relating entrepreneurship to economic growth," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation 13, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.
- Audretsch, David B. & Keilbach, Max C. & Lehmann, Erik E., 2006. "Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195183511.
- Anisya S Thomas & Stephen L Mueller, 2000. "A Case for Comparative Entrepreneurship: Assessing the Relevance of Culture," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 31(2), pages 287-301, June.
- Buchanan, James M. & Vanberg, Viktor J., 1991. "The Market as a Creative Process," Economics and Philosophy, Cambridge University Press, vol. 7(02), pages 167-186, October.
- Davidsson, Per & Wiklund, Johan, 1997. "Values, beliefs and regional variations in new firm formation rates," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 18(2-3), pages 179-199, April.
- Jeroen Bergh & Sigrid Stagl, 2003. "Coevolution of economic behaviour and institutions: towards a theory of institutional change," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 13(3), pages 289-317, August.
- Ward, Thomas B., 2004. "Cognition, creativity, and entrepreneurship," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 173-188, March.
- Niels G. Noorderhaven & Sander Wennekers & Geert Hofstede & A. Roy Thurik & Ralph E. Wildeman, 1999. "Self-Employment out of Dissatisfaction: An International Study," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 99-089/3, Tinbergen Institute.
- Greif, Avner, 1994. "Cultural Beliefs and the Organization of Society: A Historical and Theoretical Reflection on Collectivist and Individualist Societies," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 102(5), pages 912-950, October. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bap:journl:130202. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Carlson)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.