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The real effects of credit constraints: evidence from discouraged borrowers in the euro area

Author

Listed:
  • Ferrando, Annalisa
  • Mulier, Klaas

Abstract

This paper uses a new survey-based data set and a model with strong theoretical under-pinnings to explain the characteristics and behaviour of discouraged borrowers in the euro area. The results show that more borrowers are discouraged when the average interest rate charged by banks in a country is higher. Higher corporate tax rates, on the other hand, lead to lower discouragement. We show that discouragement has strong negative effects on in- vestment growth (-4.7pp), employment growth (-2.7pp) and asset growth (-2.9pp) due to the lack of access to bank finance in the two years following the discouragement. Furthermore, we estimate that the majority of discouraged borrowers would be unable to get a loan if they would apply. Consistent with this low loan approval likelihood, discouraged borrowers tend to be relatively risky firms. JEL Classification: G01, G10, G30, G32

Suggested Citation

  • Ferrando, Annalisa & Mulier, Klaas, 2015. "The real effects of credit constraints: evidence from discouraged borrowers in the euro area," Working Paper Series 1842, European Central Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:ecb:ecbwps:20151842
    Note: 235236
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    File URL: https://www.ecb.europa.eu//pub/pdf/scpwps/ecbwp1842.en.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Campello, Murillo & Graham, John R. & Harvey, Campbell R., 2010. "The real effects of financial constraints: Evidence from a financial crisis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 97(3), pages 470-487, September.
    2. Levenson, Alec R & Willard, Kristen L, 2000. "Do Firms Get the Financing They Want? Measuring Credit Rationing Experienced by Small Business in the U.S," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 14(2), pages 83-94, March.
    3. Mark Freel & Sara Carter & Stephen Tagg & Colin Mason, 2012. "The latent demand for bank debt: characterizing “discouraged borrowers”," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 38(4), pages 399-418, May.
    4. repec:ucp:jpolec:doi:10.1086/696272 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Thorsten Beck & Hans Degryse & Ralph de Haas & Neeltje van Horen, 2014. "When arm's length is too far. Relationship banking over the business cycle," DNB Working Papers 431, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
    6. Ken S. Cavalluzzo, 2002. "Competition, Small Business Financing, and Discrimination: Evidence from a New Survey," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 75(4), pages 641-680, October.
    7. Ferrando, Annalisa & Mulier, Klaas, 2013. "Do firms use the trade credit channel to manage growth?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 3035-3046.
    8. Kon, Y & Storey, D J, 2003. "A Theory of Discouraged Borrowers," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 21(1), pages 37-49, August.
    9. Mary Amiti & David E. Weinstein, 2018. "How Much Do Idiosyncratic Bank Shocks Affect Investment? Evidence from Matched Bank-Firm Loan Data," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 126(2), pages 525-587.
    10. repec:ebd:wpaper:169 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Thorsten Beck & Hans Degryse & Ralph de Haas & Neeltje van Horen, 2014. "When Arm's Length Is Too Far. Relationship Banking over the Business Cycle," CESifo Working Paper Series 4877, CESifo Group Munich.
    12. Martin Brown & Steven Ongena & Alexander Popov & Pinar Yeşin, 2011. "Who needs credit and who gets credit in Eastern Europe?," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 26(01), pages 93-130, January.
    13. Annalisa Ferrando & Klaas Mulier, 2015. "Firms’ Financing Constraints: Do Perceptions Match the Actual Situation?," The Economic and Social Review, Economic and Social Studies, vol. 46(1), pages 87-117.
    14. Gabriel Chodorow-Reich, 2014. "The Employment Effects of Credit Market Disruptions: Firm-level Evidence from the 2008-9 Financial Crisis," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 129(1), pages 1-59.
    15. Amiti, Mary & Weinstein, David E., 2013. "How much do bank shocks affect investment? Evidence from matched bank-firm loan data," Staff Reports 604, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, revised 01 Jul 2013.
    16. Sugato Chakravarty & Tansel Yilmazer, 2009. "A Multistage Model of Loans and the Role of Relationships," Financial Management, Financial Management Association International, vol. 38(4), pages 781-816, December.
    17. Tullio Jappelli, 1990. "Who is Credit Constrained in the U. S. Economy?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 105(1), pages 219-234.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

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    Cited by:

    1. repec:eee:jbvent:v:33:y:2018:i:4:p:513-533 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Mustafa Caglayan & Oleksandr Talavera & Lin Xiong & Jing Zhang, 2019. "What does not kill us makes us stronger: the story of repetitive consumer loan applications," Discussion Papers 19-01, Department of Economics, University of Birmingham.
    3. Demoussis, Michael & Drakos, Konstantinos & Giannakopoulos, Nicholas, 2016. "The Impact of Sovereign Ratings on Eurozone SMEs Credit Rationing," MPRA Paper 76364, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Gómez, Miguel García-Posada, 2018. "Credit constraints, firm investment and growth: evidence from survey data," Working Paper Series 2126, European Central Bank.
    5. Bongini, Paola & Ferrando, Annalisa & Rossi, Emanuele & Rossolini, Monica, 2017. "Suitable or non-suitable? An investigation of Eurozone SME access to market-based finance," CEPR Discussion Papers 12006, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    6. Annalisa Ferrando & Klaas Mulier, 2015. "Firms’ Financing Constraints: Do Perceptions Match the Actual Situation?," The Economic and Social Review, Economic and Social Studies, vol. 46(1), pages 87-117.
    7. repec:eme:jespps:jes-03-2016-0046 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Discouraged borrowers; real effects; static trade-off theory; survey data;

    JEL classification:

    • G01 - Financial Economics - - General - - - Financial Crises
    • G10 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - General (includes Measurement and Data)
    • G30 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - General
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill

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