When buyers choose the order in which they bargain with suppliers of known characteristics, prices are determined jointly by bargaining power and competitive intensity (the outside option to bargain with rival suppliers). Bargaining power becomes less important to the outcome as competition intensifies; prices fall to marginal cost in the limit. With positive visit costs and weak competition, some buyer power is necessary for trade. Incomplete buyer power may lead to inefficient choice of bargaining order. The robustness of ordered bargaining to the possibility of price posting and auctions, and welfare properties of these alternative pricing institutions are also explored.
|Date of creation:||Sep 2006|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Department of Justice Antitrust Division 450 Fifth Street NW Washington, DC 20530|
Web page: http://www.justice.gov/atr/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Ruqu Wang, 1991.
"Auctions Versus Posted-Price Selling,"
812, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
- Maria Arbatskaya, 2007. "Ordered search," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 38(1), pages 119-126, 03.
- Arial Rubinstein & Asher Wolinsky, 1985.
"Equilibrium in a Market with Sequential Bargaining,"
Levine's Working Paper Archive
623, David K. Levine.
- Rubinstein, Ariel & Wolinsky, Asher, 1985. "Equilibrium in a Market with Sequential Bargaining," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 53(5), pages 1133-50, September.
- Tasneem Chipty & Christopher M. Snyder, 1999. "The Role Of Firm Size In Bilateral Bargaining: A Study Of The Cable Television Industry," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 81(2), pages 326-340, May.
- Matthew O. Jackson & Thomas R. Palfrey, 1998.
"Efficiency and Voluntary Implementation in Markets with Repeated Pairwise Bargaining,"
Econometric Society, vol. 66(6), pages 1353-1388, November.
- Matthew O. Jackson & Thomas R. Palfrey, 1997. "Efficiency and Voluntary Implementation in Markets with Repeated Pairwise Bargaining," Game Theory and Information 9711003, EconWPA.
- Bulow, Jeremy & Klemperer, Paul, 1996. "Auctions versus Negotiations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(1), pages 180-94, March.
- Acemoglu, Daron & Shimer, Robert, 1999.
"Holdups and Efficiency with Search Frictions,"
International Economic Review,
Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 40(4), pages 827-49, November.
- K. G. Binmore & M. J. Herrero, 1988. "Matching and Bargaining in Dynamic Markets," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 55(1), pages 17-31.
- Arnold, Michael A & Lippman, Steven A, 1998. "Posted Prices versus Bargaining in Markets with Asymmetric Information," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 36(3), pages 450-57, July.
- Ferris, J Stephen, 1990.
"Time, Space, and Shopping: The Regulation of Shopping Hours,"
Journal of Law, Economics and Organization,
Oxford University Press, vol. 6(1), pages 171-87, Spring.
- Stephen J. Ferris, 1988. "Time, Space And Shopping: The Regulation Of Shopping Hours," Carleton Industrial Organization Research Unit (CIORU) 88-06, Carleton University, Department of Economics.
- Kosfeld, Michael, 2002.
"Why shops close again: An evolutionary perspective on the deregulation of shopping hours,"
European Economic Review,
Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 51-72, January.
- Kosfeld, M., 1999. "Why Shops Close Again : An Evolutionary Perspective on the Deregulation of Shopping Hours," Research Memorandum 776, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
- Wang, Ruqu, 1995. "Bargaining versus posted-price selling," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 39(9), pages 1747-1764, December.
- David, Douglas D & Holt, Charles A, 1996. "Consumer Search Costs and Market Performance," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 34(1), pages 133-51, January.
- Dobson, Paul W & Waterson, Michael, 1997. "Countervailing Power and Consumer Prices," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 107(441), pages 418-30, March.
- Ken Binmore & Avner Shared & John Sutton, 1989. "An Outside Option Experiment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 104(4), pages 753-770.
- Perry, Motty & Wigderson, Avi, 1986. "Search in a Known Pattern," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(1), pages 225-30, February.
- Bester, Helmut, 1993. "Bargaining versus Price Competition in Markets with Quality Uncertainty," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(1), pages 278-88, March.
- Waehrer, Keith & Perry, Martin K, 2003.
" The Effects of Mergers in Open-Auction Markets,"
RAND Journal of Economics,
The RAND Corporation, vol. 34(2), pages 287-304, Summer.
- Gianni De Fraja & Jozsef Sakovics, 1999.
"Walras Retrouve: Decentralized Trading Mechanisms and the Competitive Price,"
ESE Discussion Papers
36, Edinburgh School of Economics, University of Edinburgh.
- Gianni De Fraja & Jozsef Sakovics, 2001. "Walras Retrouve: Decentralized Trading Mechanisms and the Competitive Price," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 109(4), pages 842-863, August.
- Henrick Horn & Asher Wolinsky, 1988.
"Bilateral Monopolies and Incentives for Merger,"
RAND Journal of Economics,
The RAND Corporation, vol. 19(3), pages 408-419, Autumn.
- Dean Corbae & Ted Temzelides & Randall Wright, 2003. "Directed Matching and Monetary Exchange," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 71(3), pages 731-756, 05.
- Jim Engle-Warnick & Bradley Ruffle, 2006. "Buyer Concentration As A Source Of Countervailing Power: Evidence From Experimental Posted-Offer Markets," Departmental Working Papers 2006-12, McGill University, Department of Economics.
- Helmut Bester, 1988.
"Bargaining, Search Costs and Equilibrium Price Distributions,"
Review of Economic Studies,
Oxford University Press, vol. 55(2), pages 201-214.
- Bester,Helmut, 1986. "Bargaining,Search costs and equilibrium price distribution," Discussion Paper Serie A 49, University of Bonn, Germany.
- Stahl, Dale O., 1996. "Oligopolistic pricing with heterogeneous consumer search," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 243-268.
- Inderst, Roman & Irmen, Andreas, 2001.
"Shopping Hours and Price Competition,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
3001, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Alexander Raskovich, 2006. "Competition or Collusion? Negotiating Discounts Off Posted Prices," EAG Discussions Papers 200601, Department of Justice, Antitrust Division.
- Gerard R. Butters, 1977. "Equilibrium Distributions of Sales and Advertising Prices," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 44(3), pages 465-491.
- Diamond, Peter A., 1971. "A model of price adjustment," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 3(2), pages 156-168, June.
- Alexander Raskovich, 2003. "Pivotal Buyers and Bargaining Position," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(4), pages 405-426, December.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:doj:eagpap:200610. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Tung Vu)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.