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Nichteheliche Mutterschaft und soziale Ungleichheit: zur sozioökonomischen Differenzierung der Familienformen in Ost- und Westdeutschland

  • Dirk Konietzka

    (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany)

  • Michaela Kreyenfeld

    (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany)

Registered author(s):

    Nichteheliche Geburten haben in den 1990er Jahren in Westdeutschland, vor allem aber in Ostdeutschland stark an Bedeutung gewonnen. Der deutsche familialistische Wohlfahrtsstaat fördert jedoch steuerlich und sozialpolitisch vorrangig verheiratete Paare. Zugleich unterscheidet er zwischen Alleinerziehenden und nichtehelichen Lebensgemeinschaften. Vor diesem Hintergrund ist zu erwarten, dass verheiratete, kohabitierende und alleinerziehende Mütter sich in ihren sozialstrukturellen Hintergründen und hauptsächlichen Unterhaltsquellen (Einkommen des Partners, staatliche Transferzahlungen und eigenes Einkommen) unterscheiden. Analysen der Mikrozensen der Jahre 1991-2000 unterstützen diese These teilweise. Alleinerziehende Frauen haben häufiger einen geringen Bildungsabschluss und sind häufiger von sozialstaatlichen Transferzahlungen abhängig als Frauen in anderen Familienformen. In Westdeutschland leben gut ausgebildete Mütter vergleichsweise häufig in einer nichtehelichen Lebensgemeinschaft. Kohabitierende Mütter sind zudem häufiger Vollzeit erwerbstätig als andere Mütter. In Ostdeutschland bestehen nur geringe Unterschiede zwischen verheirateten und in einer nichtehelichen Lebensgemeinschaft lebenden Müttern im Hinblick auf den Bildungsabschluss und das Ausmaß der Erwerbsbeteiligung. Auch verheiratete Mütter sind selten vom Einkommen des Partners abhängig. Die ökonomische Unabhängigkeit verheirateter Mütter ist ein zentrales Merkmal des Wandels der Familie in Ostdeutschland und begründet deutliche Ost-West-Unterschiede in den ökonomischen Grundlagen von Familien.

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    File URL: http://www.demogr.mpg.de/papers/working/wp-2005-001.pdf
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    Paper provided by Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany in its series MPIDR Working Papers with number WP-2005-001.

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    Length: 44 pages
    Date of creation: Feb 2005
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:dem:wpaper:wp-2005-001
    Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.demogr.mpg.de/

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    1. Fein, David J., 2001. "Will welfare reform influence marriage and fertility? Early evidence from the ABC demonstration," Evaluation and Program Planning, Elsevier, vol. 24(4), pages 427-444, November.
    2. R. A. Moffitt, . "Welfare Benefits and Female Headship in U.S. Time Series," Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers 1219-01, University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty.
    3. Hank, Karsten & Kreyenfeld, Michaela & Spieß, Christa Katharina, 2004. "Kinderbetreuung und Fertilität in Deutschland," EconStor Open Access Articles, ZBW - German National Library of Economics, pages 228-244.
    4. Irwin Garfinkel & Chien-Chung Huang & Sara S. McLanahan & Daniel S. Gaylin, 2003. "The roles of child support enforcement and welfare in non-marital childbearing," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 16(1), pages 55-70, 02.
    5. Robert Moffitt & Robert Reville & Anne Winkler, 1998. "Beyond single mothers: Cohabitation and marriage in the AFDC program," Demography, Springer, vol. 35(3), pages 259-278, August.
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