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Determinants and Uses of Remittances to Southern and Eastern Mediterranean Countries: Insights from a New Survey

Author

Listed:
  • Luis Miotti

    (University Paris 13)

  • El Mouhoub Mouhoud

    () (University Paris Dauphine)

  • Joel Oudinet

    (University Paris 13)

Abstract

In this paper, we analyze the determinants and the final use of remittances of migrants settled in France sending remittances to the southern Mediterranean and Sub-Saharan African countries. Research using microdata is very scarce in this region; we rely on a specially designed survey (2MO) we conducted in 2007-2008 of 1,000 people who remit to the three Maghreb countries, to Turkey and to the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa. We also use a second survey conducted by the French Ministry of Social Affairs and Health (DREES) which includes a sample of 3,500 people from the regions we are interested in. DREES microdata set enables us to understand who is more likely to remit (extensive margin). 2MO microdata allows an analysis of remittance behavior amongst those who remit (intensive margin) including sum and reported final use of remittances (housing, investment, current expenditures). Using these two microdatasets, we examine the likelihood to remit across the different waves of immigrants, the motivations to remit and the intended final use of remittances to highlight behavior differences between the different waves of immigration on the one hand, and on the other hand, the importance of looking beyond classical variables to better understand remittance behavior and its changing nature. Our first result shows that, after controlling for all the variables linked to income, education, age or nationality, subjective variables such as attachment to the home country, history and the institutional context of emigration play a determinant role in explaining remittance behavior. Our second result shows that migrants, who are in France for a long time and who have low education levels, also send remittances in order to invest in their home country. The degree of the migrant’s attachment to his home country thus appears as a discriminating subjective variable. By contrast, the migrants from Sub-Saharan Africa send money for current In this paper, we analyze the determinants and the final use of remittances of migrants settled in France sending remittances to the southern Mediterranean and Sub-Saharan African countries. Research using microdata is very scarce in this region; we rely on a specially designed survey (2MO) we conducted in 2007-2008 of 1,000 people who remit to the three Maghreb countries, to Turkey and to the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa. We also use a second survey conducted by the French Ministry of Social Affairs and Health (DREES) which includes a sample of 3,500 people from the regions we are interested in. DREES microdata set enables us to understand who is more likely to remit (extensive margin). 2MO microdata allows an analysis of remittance behavior amongst those who remit (intensive margin) including sum and reported final use of remittances (housing, investment, current expenditures). Using these two microdatasets, we examine the likelihood to remit across the different waves of immigrants, the motivations to remit and the intended final use of remittances to highlight behavior differences between the different waves of immigration on the one hand, and on the other hand, the importance of looking beyond classical variables to better understand remittance behavior and its changing nature. Our first result shows that, after controlling for all the variables linked to income, education, age or nationality, subjective variables such as attachment to the home country, history and the institutional context of emigration play a determinant role in explaining remittance behavior. Our second result shows that migrants, who are in France for a long time and who have low education levels, also send remittances in order to invest in their home country. The degree of the migrant’s attachment to his home country thus appears as a discriminating subjective variable. By contrast, the migrants from Sub-Saharan Africa send money for current expenditures rather than for investment. The obligation feeling seems to be the important motivation for remit.

Suggested Citation

  • Luis Miotti & El Mouhoub Mouhoud & Joel Oudinet, 2010. "Determinants and Uses of Remittances to Southern and Eastern Mediterranean Countries: Insights from a New Survey," Development Working Papers 288, Centro Studi Luca d'Agliano, University of Milano, revised 30 Apr 2010.
  • Handle: RePEc:csl:devewp:288
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    File URL: http://www.dagliano.unimi.it/media/WP2010_288.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Ravallion, Martin & Lokshin, Michael, 2002. "Self-rated economic welfare in Russia," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 46(8), pages 1453-1473, September.
    2. Rapoport, Hillel & Docquier, Frederic, 2006. "The Economics of Migrants' Remittances," Handbook on the Economics of Giving, Reciprocity and Altruism, Elsevier.
    3. Lorenzo Cappellari & Stephen P. Jenkins, 2003. "Multivariate probit regression using simulated maximum likelihood," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 3(3), pages 278-294, September.
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    Cited by:

    1. RANA Rezwanul Hasan & HASHMI Rubayyat, 2015. "The Determinants Of Worker Remittance In Terms Of Foreign Factors: The Case Of Bangladesh," Studies in Business and Economics, Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Faculty of Economic Sciences, vol. 10(3), pages 81-93, December.
    2. Florence Arestoff & Mélanie Kuhn & El Mouhoub Mouhoud, 2012. "Transferts de fonds des migrants en Afrique du Sud. Les conditions de départ du pays d'origine sont-elles déterminantes ?," Revue économique, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 63(3), pages 513-522.
    3. Farid Farid, 2014. "The impact of exchange rate policy on remittances in Morocco: A Threshold VAR analysis," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 34(4), pages 2351-2360.
    4. Adenutsi, Deodat & Aziakpono, Meshach & Ocran, Matthew, 2011. "Macroeconomic environment and remittances in post-independent Sub-Saharan Africa: Magnitudes, trends and stylised facts," MPRA Paper 42426, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. López Parra, Elibeth & Cruz-Rodríguez, Alexis, 2016. "Determinantes macroeconómicos de las remesas en los países del DR-CAFTA
      [Macroeconomic determinants of remittances in the countries of DR- CAFTA]
      ," MPRA Paper 68886, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. repec:dau:papers:123456789/10118 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Safaa Tabit & Charaf-Eddine Moussir, 2016. "Macroeconomic Determinants of Migrants’ Remittances: Evidence from a Panel of Developing Countries," International Journal of Business and Social Research, MIR Center for Socio-Economic Research, vol. 6(7), pages 1-11, July.

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