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Financial Factors and Investment in Belgium, France, Germany and the UK : A Comparison using Company Panel Data


  • Stephen Bond


  • Julie Ann Elston


  • Jacques Mairesse


  • Benoît Mulkay



This paper investigates whether the impact of financing constraints on company investment spending differs between firms in Belgium, France, Germany and the UK. Many previous studies have found that investment spending displays "excess sensitivity to cash flow" for individual countries, and concluded that this evidence is consistent with the presence of financing constraints. Very few previous studies have presented comparative evidence. Interest in a comparative study stems from the considerable differences between financial systems in these four countries: for example, in sources of investment finance, company ownership structures, the market for corporate control, and the relative importance of different financial markets and institutions. Differences between the UK "market-based" system and the German "bank-based" system have received particular attention. It is sometimes suggested that the arms-length relation between firms and suppliers of finance that tends to characterise the market-oriented system may be less effective at dealing with problems of asymmetric information and monitoring. If so, it is possible that financing constraints on investment would be more severe in the UK than in the continental European countries. We construct company panel datasets for manufacturing firms in Belgium, France, Germany and the UK, covering the period 1978-89. These datasets are used to estimate a range of empirical investment equations, and to investigate the role played by financial factors in each country. A robust finding is that cash flow or profits terms do appear to be both statistically and quantitatively more significant in the UK than in the other three countries. This evidence is consistent with the suggestion that financial constraints on company investment spending may be relatively severe in the more market-oriented UK financial system.
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  • Stephen Bond & Julie Ann Elston & Jacques Mairesse & Benoît Mulkay, 1999. "Financial Factors and Investment in Belgium, France, Germany and the UK : A Comparison using Company Panel Data," Working Papers 99-64, Center for Research in Economics and Statistics.
  • Handle: RePEc:crs:wpaper:99-64

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Mayer, Colin, 1988. "New issues in corporate finance," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 32(5), pages 1167-1183, June.
    2. Whited, Toni M, 1992. "Debt, Liquidity Constraints, and Corporate Investment: Evidence from Panel Data," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(4), pages 1425-1460, September.
    3. Nickell, Stephen J, 1981. "Biases in Dynamic Models with Fixed Effects," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(6), pages 1417-1426, November.
    4. Colin Mayer, 1990. "Financial Systems, Corporate Finance, and Economic Development," NBER Chapters, in: Asymmetric Information, Corporate Finance, and Investment, pages 307-332, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Nickell, Stephen, 1985. "Error Correction, Partial Adjustment and All That: An Expository Note," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 47(2), pages 119-129, May.
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    JEL classification:

    • C23 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • D21 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Firm Behavior: Theory


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