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Industrialización, Informalidad Y Comercio Internacional

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En este trabajo se recrea un modelo de la economía mundial que se caracteriza por industrialización marginal con una creciente integración tecnológica anterior. El sector industrial tiene altos costos de entrada, demanda trabajo calificado, y experimenta rendimientos constantes a escala en insumos y trabajo calificado. La productividad manufacturera en su conjunto aumenta con la diversificación industrial. Por otra parte, los servicios demandan trabajo no calificado y los costos de entrada son nulos. Los bienes manufactureros son (internacionalmente) transables; los servicios no lo son. La gente ofrece trabajo inelásticamente para salarios por encima del nivel de subsistencia. Existe por otra parte una abundante oferta de trabajo no calificado. Con estos supuestos se genera un sector informal de bajos salarios relacionado con las actividades de servicios. En la economía mundial integrada por el comercio internacional se puede generar una brecha de ingresos entre los países del Norte y los del Sur si el diferencial en diversificación industrial excede cierto umbral; para este resultado es necesario suponer fuertes restricciones a la migración internacional. Finalmente, se considera el caso de una economía subdesarrollada que se abre al comercio internacional. Si el país se abre antes (después) de alcanzar un cierto umbral de industrialización se especializa en actividades de baja (alta) diversificación industrial y su ingreso converge al bajo (alto) nivel de los países del Sur (Norte); este es el caso de los países recientemente desindustrializados (industrializados). El modelo propone la necesidad de una política de diversificación industrial y de educación de la población.

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Paper provided by UNIVERSIDAD DEL VALLE - CIDSE in its series DOCUMENTOS DE TRABAJO-CIDSE with number 002841.

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Length: 33
Date of creation: 01 Sep 2004
Handle: RePEc:col:000149:002841
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  1. Kevin M. Murphy & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1988. "Industrialization and the Big Push," NBER Working Papers 2708, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Maloney, William F., 1998. "The structure of labor markets in developing countries : time series evidence on competing views," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1940, The World Bank.
  3. Loayza, Norman V., 1996. "The economics of the informal sector: a simple model and some empirical evidence from Latin America," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 129-162, December.
  4. Rocío Ribero, 2003. "Gender Dimensions Of Non-Formal Employment In Colombia," DOCUMENTOS CEDE 002762, UNIVERSIDAD DE LOS ANDES-CEDE.
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