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Analyse économique du Risk Management Program (section 112® du « Clean Air Act »)

  • Nathalie de Marcellis-Warin
  • Ingrid Peignier
  • Bernard Sinclair-Desgagné

The Civil Protection Act (Bill 173), passed on December 19, 2001, gives the government the power to adopt a by-law on technological risk management. In the elaboration of this by-law, the Ministry of Civil Protection wanted to obtain information on the American Risk Management Program (RMP) adopted in June 1999. Any project (or by-law), public or private in nature, must be evaluated to determine whether it is positive or negative for each agent, as well as for the society as a whole. In the case of the new Quebec by-law, the CIRANO was contracted to perform an economical evaluation of the RMP, meaning that it had to evaluate the costs associated with requirements of this type of by-law, as well as the benefits that it brought to the corporation. The report that was produced first presents the methodology used for the cost/benefit analysis of compliance with the regulation on industrial risks, as well as an application to the RMP. The report lists the direct and indirect costs, as well as the direct benefits ("negative costs"") and indirect benefits. The direct costs are those directly imputable to compliance with the requirements of the by-law, while indirect costs are those generated by the application of the by-law rather than to compliance itself (decrease of the productivity, delayed investments); indirect benefits might include improvement of the corporate image, reductions in insurance costs and technological innovations.Secondly, the report also explains the responsibilities of each group, as well as the means supplied to them to assume these responsibilities. It currently appears necessary, to improve the effectiveness of environmental regulation, amongst others, to reinforce the culture and the consciousness of risk, as well as to promote involvement by facilities, local communities and the broader public. In this context, the report examines the Local Emergency Planning Committees (LEPCs), which are pivotal entities in the transfer of information between local communities, facilities and citizens. Additionally, when a new regulation comes into effect, a program of inspection must be set up to assure that the subjected facilities fulfil the new requirements. Consequently, the report examined one model of incentive audits, as well as the role of insurance companies in the prevention of major industrial accidents. The conclusion contains a discussion about the economic analysis of the RMP and isolates the main elements that must be accounted for." La loi sur la Sécurité Civile (Loi 173), en vigueur depuis le 19 décembre 2001, donne au gouvernement le pouvoir d'adopter un Règlement sur la gestion des risques technologiques. Dans le cadre de l'élaboration de ce Règlement, le Ministère de la Sécurité Publique désirait obtenir de l'information sur le « Risk Management Program » (RMP) américain (mis en place aux États-Unis depuis juin 1999).Tout projet (ou toute réglementation), qu'il soit public ou privé, doit être évalué dans son ensemble pour savoir s'il se traduit par un gain net ou par une perte nette pour la société et pour chacun des intervenants. Dans le cadre de la nouvelle réglementation québécoise, le CIRANO avait comme mandat de réaliser une évaluation économique du RMP, c'est à dire de réfléchir sur les coûts des mesures exigées par ce type de règlement et sur les différents bénéfices retirés par l'entreprise.Le rapport qui a été produit, présente en première partie la méthodologie de l'analyse coûts - bénéfices de la conformité à la réglementation des risques industriels ainsi qu'une application au RMP. Il répertorie les coûts directs et indirects ainsi que les bénéfices directs («coûts négatifs») et indirects pour les entreprises. Les coûts directs sont directement liés à la mise en conformité avec les exigences de la réglementation, alors que les coûts indirects ne résultent pas à proprement parler de la mise en conformité, mais sont subis par certaines installations suite à la mise en place du règlement (baisse de la productivité, investissements retardés) ; les bénéfices indirects peuvent inclure l'amélioration de l'image publique, la baisse des primes d'assurance ou encore l'innovation technologique.En seconde partie, le rapport explique les responsabilités de chacun des groupes d'acteurs ainsi que les moyens nécessaires pour les assumer. Il paraît nécessaire à l'heure actuelle, pour améliorer l'efficacité des régulations environnementales entre autres, de renforcer la culture de risque dans l'installation, mais aussi de mieux impliquer les communautés locales et le public. C'est dans ce contexte que sont étudiés dans ce rapport les « Local Emergency Planning Commitees » (LEPCs), entités pivot dans le transfert d'information entre les communautés locales, les entreprises et les citoyens. De plus, lorsqu'une nouvelle réglementation entre en vigueur, un programme de vérification doit être mis en place pour s'assurer que les exigences sont remplies par les installations assujetties. Par conséquent, ce rapport examine des schémas d'audit incitatifs ainsi que le rôle des compagnies d'assurance dans la prévention des risques d'accidents industriels majeurs. Pour conclure, une réflexion est menée sur cette analyse économique du RMP et permet de dégager les principaux éléments à prendre en compte.

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Paper provided by CIRANO in its series CIRANO Project Reports with number 2002rp-12.

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Length: 187 pages
Date of creation: 01 Jul 2002
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:cir:cirpro:2002rp-12
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  1. Konar, Shameek & Cohen, Mark A., 1997. "Information As Regulation: The Effect of Community Right to Know Laws on Toxic Emissions," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 109-124, January.
  2. Krupnick, Alan & Toman, Michael & Kopp, Raymond, 1997. "Cost-Benefit Analysis and Regulatory Reform: An Assessment of the Science and Art," Discussion Papers dp-97-19, Resources For the Future.
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