Income Gap by Gender: Perpetuated or Exacerbated when Old?
Many countries have switched from a pay-as-you-go pension systems to a fully funded scheme with individual accounts. These fully funded systems are commonly implemented as defined contribution schemes, so that the final benefits paid are uncertain and closely related the contribution profile. Therefore, different labor market participation rates and different wages between genders do not only have an impact on earnings during the working period, but also during retirement. Besides, some special features of the Chilean System augment that phenomena and some do the opposite. This article analyses why the relative income position of women with respect to men gets worse off in the old age and how different features of the system, the labor market and the individual affect that.
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- Gert Wagner, 1991.
"La seguridad social y el programa de pensión mínima garantizada,"
Estudios de Economia,
University of Chile, Department of Economics, vol. 18(1 Year 19), pages 33-91, June.
- Gert Wagner, . "La Seguridad Social y el Programa de Pensión Mínima Garantizada," Documentos de Trabajo 133, Instituto de Economia. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile..
- Solange Berstein & Guillermo Larraín & Francisco Pino, 2005. "Cobertura, densidad y pensiones en Chile: Proyecciones a 20 años plazo," Working Papers 12, Superintendencia de Pensiones, revised Nov 2005.
- Harmgart, Heike & Jurajda, Stepan, 2004.
"When do 'Female' Occupations Pay More?,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
4270, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- James, Estelle & Edwards, Alejandra Cox & Wong, Rebeca, 2003. "The gender impact of pension reform," Journal of Pension Economics and Finance, Cambridge University Press, vol. 2(02), pages 181-219, July.
- Bertranou, Fabio M., 2001. "Pension Reform and Gender Gaps in Latin America: What are the Policy Options?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(5), pages 911-923, May.
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