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Working Less and Bargain Hunting More:Macro Implications of Sales during Japan's Lost Decades

Author

Listed:
  • Nao Sudo

    (Bank of Japan)

  • Kozo Ueda

    (Waseda University)

  • Kota Watanabe

    (Meiji University)

  • Tsutomu Watanabe

    (The University of Tokyo)

Abstract

Standard New Keynesian models have often neglected temporary sales. In this paper, we ask whether this treatment is appropriate. In the empirical part of the paper, we provide evidence using Japanese scanner data covering the last two decades that the frequency of sales was closely related with macroeconomic developments. Specically, we find that the frequency of sales and hours worked move in opposite directions in response to technology shocks, producing a negative correlation between the two. We then construct a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model that takes households' decisions regarding their allocation of time for work, leisure, and bargain hunting into account. Using this model, we show that the rise in the frequency of sales, which is observed in the data, can be accounted for by the decline in hours worked during Japan's lost decades. We also nd that the real eect of monetary policy shocks weakens by around 40% due to the presence of temporary sales, but monetary policy still matters.

Suggested Citation

  • Nao Sudo & Kozo Ueda & Kota Watanabe & Tsutomu Watanabe, 2014. "Working Less and Bargain Hunting More:Macro Implications of Sales during Japan's Lost Decades," CARF F-Series CARF-F-351, Center for Advanced Research in Finance, Faculty of Economics, The University of Tokyo.
  • Handle: RePEc:cfi:fseres:cf351
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Yoshiyuki Kurachi & Kazuhiro Hiraki & Shinichi Nishioka, 2016. "Does a Higher Frequency of Micro-level Price Changes Matter for Macro Price Stickiness?: Assessing the Impact of Temporary Price Changes," Bank of Japan Working Paper Series 16-E-9, Bank of Japan.
    2. Ueda, Kozo, 2020. "Dynamic cost of living index for storable goods," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 189(C).
    3. Oleksiy Kryvtsov & Nicolas Vincent, 2014. "On the Importance of Sales for Aggregate Price Flexibility," Staff Working Papers 14-45, Bank of Canada.
    4. Shuhei Takahashi, 2018. "Does State-Dependent Wage Setting Generate Multiple Equilibria?," KIER Working Papers 991, Kyoto University, Institute of Economic Research.
    5. Kozo Ueda & Kota Watanabe & Tsutomu Watanabe, 2020. "Consumer Inventory and the Cost of Living Index: Theory and Some Evidence from Japan," Working Papers on Central Bank Communication 025, University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Economics.
    6. Nao Sudo & Kozo Ueda & Kota Watanabe, 2014. "Micro Price Dynamics during Japan's Lost Decades," Asian Economic Policy Review, Japan Center for Economic Research, vol. 9(1), pages 44-64, January.
    7. Glandon, PJ, 2018. "Sales and the (Mis)measurement of price level fluctuations," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 60-77.
    8. Hibiki Ichiue & Maiko Koga & Tatsushi Okuda & Tatsuya Ozaki, 2019. "Households' Liquidity Constraint, Optimal Attention Allocation, and Inflation Expectations," Bank of Japan Working Paper Series 19-E-8, Bank of Japan.
    9. Naoko Hara & Kazuhiro Hiraki & Yoshitaka Ichise, 2015. "Changing Exchange Rate Pass-Through in Japan: Does It Indicate Changing Pricing Behavior?," Bank of Japan Working Paper Series 15-E-4, Bank of Japan.

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    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • E3 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles
    • E5 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit

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