Discretional political budget cycles and separation of powers
In contrast to previous empirical work on electoral cycles, which implicitly assumes the executive has full discretion over fiscal policy, this paper contends that under separation of powers an unaligned legislature may have a moderating role. Focusing on the budget surplus, we find that stronger effective checks and balances explain why cycles are weaker in developed and established democracies. Once the discretional component of executive power is isolated, there are significant cycles in all democracies. Whether the political system is presidential or parliamentary, or the electoral rules are majoritarian or proportional, does not change the basic results.
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- Akhmed Akhmedov & Ekaterina Zhuravskaya, 2004.
"Opportunistic Political Cycles: Test in a Young Democracy Setting,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
Oxford University Press, vol. 119(4), pages 1301-1338.
- Akhmed Akhmedov & Ekaterina Zhuravskaya, 2003. "Opportunistic Political Cycles: Test in a Young Democracy Setting," Working Papers w0024, Center for Economic and Financial Research (CEFIR).
- Akhmed Akhmedov & Ekaterina Zhuravskaya, 2004. "Opportunistic Political Cycles: Test in a Young Democracy Setting," Economics Working Papers 0047, Institute for Advanced Study, School of Social Science.
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"Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations,"
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