Coping with Water Scarcity: The Governance Challenge
Water is becoming increasingly scarce all over the world. All indicators of water availability show that per capita supplies will continue to decline in the years ahead. A conservative recent estimate projects that 1.8 billion people will live in regions or countries with â€œabsolute water scarcityâ€ by 2025: that is, they will not have enough water to maintain their current level of per capita food production and also meet burgeoning urban demands, even at high levels of irrigation efficiency (Seckler, Molden, and Barker 1999). An additional 350 million will live in regions with â€œsevere water scarcity,â€ â€œwhere the potential water resources are sufficient to meet reasonable water needs by 2025, but (only if the country) embarks on massive water development projects, at enormous cost and possibly severe environmental damage, to achieve this objectiveâ€ (ibid., 1). There will also be additional, sometimes severe, localized water scarcities, even within countries that, in aggregate, have abundant water (for example, Sri Lanka: see Amarasinghe, Mutuwatta, and Sakthivadal 1999). Water scarcity will not go away. It is encouraging that past predictions of future water use have been consistently too high. Linear projections of the past into the future have consistently underestimated the potential for changes in technology, social organization, and incentives that have made it possible to reduce per capita water use without negatively affecting welfare. This tendency offers opportunities for policy makers, since it can direct their action to those changes that can facilitate such benign responses to increasing water scarcity. Nevertheless, rising water scarcity poses serious challenges. This paper develops a simple framework for analyzing the political implications of diverse strategies for managing water scarcity from attempts to augment supplies to managing demand by changing water usersâ€™ incentives. All responses provide opportunities for cooperation and creativity; all contain pitfalls and potential for conflict.
|Date of creation:||04 Nov 2002|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.escholarship.org/repec/igcc/|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Vermillion, D. L., 1997. "Impacts of irrigation management transfer: a review of the evidence," IWMI Books, Reports H020352, International Water Management Institute.
- Vermillion, D. L. & Samad, M. & Pusposutardjo, S. & Arif, S. S. & Rochdyanto, S., 2000. "An assessment of the Small-Scale Irrigation Management Turnover Program in Indonesia," IWMI Books, Reports H026189, International Water Management Institute.
- Shah, T. & Molden, D. & Sakthivadivel, R. & Seckler, D., 2000. "The global groundwater situation: Overview of opportunities and challenges," IWMI Books, Reports H025885, International Water Management Institute.
- Sen, Amartya, 1983. "Development: Which Way Now?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 93(372), pages 742-62, December.
- Vermillion, Douglas. L. & Samad, Madar & Pusposutardjo, Suprodjo. & Arif, Sigit. S. & Rochdyanto, Saiful, 2000. "An assessment of the Small-Scale Irrigation Management Turnover Program in Indonesia," IWMI Research Reports H 26189, International Water Management Institute.
- Rosegrant, Mark W. & Binswanger, Hans P., 1994. "Markets in tradable water rights: Potential for efficiency gains in developing country water resource allocation," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 22(11), pages 1613-1625, November.
- Kloezen, W. H. & Garces-Restrepo, C. & Johnson, S. H. III, 1997. "Impact assessment of irrigation management transfer in the Alto Rio Lerma Irrigation District, Mexico," IWMI Books, Reports H022010, International Water Management Institute.
- Shah, Tushaar & Molden, David J. & Sakthivadivel, Ramasamy & Seckler, David, 2000. "The global groundwater situation: overview of opportunities and challenges," IWMI Books, International Water Management Institute, number 113506.
- Bandaragoda, D. J., 1998. "Design and practice of water allocation rules: lessons from warabandi in Pakistan's Punjab," IWMI Books, Reports H022219, International Water Management Institute.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cdl:globco:qt8941v354. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Lisa Schiff)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.