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The Budget and Economic Outlook: 2018 to 2028


  • Congressional Budget Office


If current laws governing taxes and spending generally remained unchanged, the federal budget deficit would grow substantially over the next few years, CBO projects, with accumulating deficits driving debt held by the public to nearly 100 percent of GDP by 2028. That amount would be far greater than the debt in any year since just after World War II. In CBO’s projections, real GDP growth is relatively strong this year and next, as recent changes in fiscal policy add to existing momentum.

Suggested Citation

  • Congressional Budget Office, 2018. "The Budget and Economic Outlook: 2018 to 2028," Reports 53651, Congressional Budget Office.
  • Handle: RePEc:cbo:report:53651

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    Cited by:

    1. Domenico Depalo, 2020. "Explaining the causal effect of adherence to medication on cholesterol through the marginal patient," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 29(S1), pages 110-126, October.
    2. Vipul Bhatt & Andre R. Neveu, 2019. "Re-Thinking Debt Burden: Going with the Flow?," Eastern Economic Journal, Palgrave Macmillan;Eastern Economic Association, vol. 45(2), pages 179-203, April.
    3. Bart Hobijn, 2020. "The Supply-Side Origins of U.S. Inflation," Central Banking, Analysis, and Economic Policies Book Series, in: Gonzalo Castex & Jordi Galí & Diego Saravia (ed.),Changing Inflation Dynamics,Evolving Monetary Policy, edition 1, volume 27, chapter 7, pages 227-268, Central Bank of Chile.
    4. Gale, William & Gelfond, Hilary & Fichtner, Jason, 2018. "How Will Retirement Saving Change by 2050? Prospects for the Millennial Generation," MPRA Paper 99196, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Emanuel Kopp & Daniel Leigh & Susanna Mursula & Suchanan Tambunlertchai, 2019. "U.S. Investment Since the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017," IMF Working Papers 2019/120, International Monetary Fund.
    6. Dorine Boumans & Clemens Fuest & Carla Krolage & Klaus Wohlrabe, 2020. "Expected effects of the US tax reform on other countries: global and local survey evidence," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 27(6), pages 1608-1630, December.
    7. Filippo Occhino, 2020. "The Effect of the 2017 Tax Reform on Investment," Economic Commentary, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, vol. 2020(17), pages 1-5, July.
    8. William G. Gale & Hilary Gelfond & Jason J. Fichtner & Benjamin H. Harris, 2021. "The Wealth of Generations, With Special Attention to the Millennials," NBER Chapters, in: Measuring Distribution and Mobility of Income and Wealth, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. Joshua Montes, 2018. "CBO’s Projection of Labor Force Participation Rates: Working Paper 2018-04," Working Papers 53616, Congressional Budget Office.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • H20 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - General
    • H60 - Public Economics - - National Budget, Deficit, and Debt - - - General
    • H61 - Public Economics - - National Budget, Deficit, and Debt - - - Budget; Budget Systems
    • H62 - Public Economics - - National Budget, Deficit, and Debt - - - Deficit; Surplus
    • H63 - Public Economics - - National Budget, Deficit, and Debt - - - Debt; Debt Management; Sovereign Debt
    • H68 - Public Economics - - National Budget, Deficit, and Debt - - - Forecasts of Budgets, Deficits, and Debt

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