IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/boj/bojwps/wp21e12.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Extracting Firms' Short-Term Inflation Expectations from the Economy Watchers Survey Using Text Analysis

Author

Listed:
  • Jouchi Nakajima

    (Bank of Japan)

  • Hiroaki Yamagata

    (Bank of Japan)

  • Tatsushi Okuda

    (Bank of Japan)

  • Shinnosuke Katsuki

    (Bank of Japan)

  • Takeshi Shinohara

    (Bank of Japan)

Abstract

This paper discusses the Price Sentiment Index (PSI), a quantitative indicator of firms' outlook for general prices proposed by Otaka and Kan (2018). The PSI is developed from the textual data of the Economy Watchers Survey conducted by the Cabinet Office; it is computed by extracting firms' views from survey comments, using text analysis. In this paper, we revisit the PSI and quantitatively analyze the determinants of changes in the PSI and the relationship between the PSI and macroeconomic variables. We also address a shortcoming in the text analysis used for computing the PSI that we discover when examining the performance of the PSI since the COVID-19 outbreak. The results of our analyses show that the PSI tends to precede consumer prices by several months and that it reflects various factors affecting price developments, including demand factors associated with the business cycle and cost factors such as changes in raw materials prices and exchange rates. Our analysis suggests that the PSI is a useful monthly indicator of inflation expectations, in that it captures the price-setting stance of firms responding to the Economy Watchers Survey. While the PSI is subject to large short-term fluctuations, it can be used to complement other indicators used for the analysis of price developments such as the output gap, existing indicators of inflation expectations, and anecdotal information from various sources.

Suggested Citation

  • Jouchi Nakajima & Hiroaki Yamagata & Tatsushi Okuda & Shinnosuke Katsuki & Takeshi Shinohara, 2021. "Extracting Firms' Short-Term Inflation Expectations from the Economy Watchers Survey Using Text Analysis," Bank of Japan Working Paper Series 21-E-12, Bank of Japan.
  • Handle: RePEc:boj:bojwps:wp21e12
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.boj.or.jp/en/research/wps_rev/wps_2021/data/wp21e12.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Tomiyuki Kitamura & Masaki Tanaka, 2019. "Firms' Inflation Expectations under Rational Inattention and Sticky Information: An Analysis with a Small-Scale Macroeconomic Model," Bank of Japan Working Paper Series 19-E-16, Bank of Japan.
    2. Olivier Coibion & Yuriy Gorodnichenko & Rupal Kamdar, 2018. "The Formation of Expectations, Inflation, and the Phillips Curve," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 56(4), pages 1447-1491, December.
    3. Olivier Coibion & Yuriy Gorodnichenko & Saten Kumar, 2018. "How Do Firms Form Their Expectations? New Survey Evidence," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 108(9), pages 2671-2713, September.
    4. Haruhiko Inatsugu & Tomiyuki Kitamura & Taichi Matsuda, 2019. "The Formation of Firms' Inflation Expectations: A Survey Data Analysis," Bank of Japan Working Paper Series 19-E-15, Bank of Japan.
    5. Saten Kumar & Hassan Afrouzi & Olivier Coibion & Yuriy Gorodnichenko, 2015. "Inflation Targeting Does Not Anchor Inflation Expectations: Evidence from Firms in New Zealand," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 46(2 (Fall)), pages 151-225.
    6. Yosuke Uno & Saori Naganuma & Naoko Hara, 2018. "New Facts about Firms' Inflation Expectations: Short- versus Long-Term Inflation Expectations," Bank of Japan Working Paper Series 18-E-15, Bank of Japan.
    7. Angelico, Cristina & Marcucci, Juri & Miccoli, Marcello & Quarta, Filippo, 2022. "Can we measure inflation expectations using Twitter?," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 228(2), pages 259-277.
    8. Goshima Keiichi & Ishijima Hiroshi & Shintani Mototsugu & Yamamoto Hiroki, 2021. "Forecasting Japanese inflation with a news-based leading indicator of economic activities," Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics & Econometrics, De Gruyter, vol. 25(4), pages 111-133, September.
    9. Seabold,Skipper & Coppola,Andrea, 2015. "Nowcasting prices using Google trends : an application to Central America," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7398, The World Bank.
    10. Yosuke Uno & Saori Naganuma & Naoko Hara, 2018. "New Facts about Firms' Inflation Expectations: Simple Tests for a Sticky Information Model," Bank of Japan Working Paper Series 18-E-14, Bank of Japan.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. De Bandt Olivier & Bricongne Jean-Charles & Denes Julien & Dhenin Alexandre & De Gaye Annabelle & Robert Pierre-Antoine, 2023. "Using the Press to Construct a New Indicator of Inflation Perceptions in France," Working papers 921, Banque de France.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Haruhiko Inatsugu & Tomiyuki Kitamura & Taichi Matsuda, 2019. "The Formation of Firms' Inflation Expectations: A Survey Data Analysis," Bank of Japan Working Paper Series 19-E-15, Bank of Japan.
    2. Shuichiro Ikeda & Haruhiko Inatsugu & Yui Kishaba & Takuji Kondo & Kenichi Sakura & Kosuke Takatomi & Takashi Nakazawa & Kotone Yamada, "undated". "Inflation in Japan: Changes during the Pandemic and Issues for the Future," Bank of Japan Working Paper Series 22-E-18, Bank of Japan.
    3. Corsello, Francesco & Neri, Stefano & Tagliabracci, Alex, 2021. "Anchored or de-anchored? That is the question," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 69(C).
    4. Olivier Coibion & Yuriy Gorodnichenko & Michael Weber, 2022. "Monetary Policy Communications and Their Effects on Household Inflation Expectations," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 130(6), pages 1537-1584.
    5. Knut Are Aastveit & Hilde C. Bjørnland & Jamie L. Cross, 2023. "Inflation Expectations and the Pass-Through of Oil Prices," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 105(3), pages 733-743, May.
    6. Massimiliano Marcellino & Dalibor Stevanovic, 2022. "The demand and supply of information about inflation," Working Papers 22-06, Chair in macroeconomics and forecasting, University of Quebec in Montreal's School of Management, revised Nov 2022.
    7. Yosuke Uno & Saori Naganuma & Naoko Hara, 2018. "New Facts about Firms' Inflation Expectations: Simple Tests for a Sticky Information Model," Bank of Japan Working Paper Series 18-E-14, Bank of Japan.
    8. Bernardo Candia & Olivier Coibion & Yuriy Gorodnichenko, 2020. "Communication and the Beliefs of Economic Agents," NBER Working Papers 27800, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. Lena Boneva & James Cloyne & Martin Weale & Tomasz Wieladek, 2020. "Firms' Price, Cost and Activity Expectations: Evidence from Micro Data," The Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 130(627), pages 555-586.
    10. Coibion, Olivier & Gorodnichenko, Yuriy & Kumar, Saten & Pedemonte, Mathieu, 2020. "Inflation expectations as a policy tool?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 124(C).
    11. Tatsushi Okuda & Tomohiro Tsuruga, 2021. "Inflation Expectations and Central Bank Communication with Unknown Prior," IMES Discussion Paper Series 21-E-07, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan.
    12. Armantier, Olivier & Koşar, Gizem & Pomerantz, Rachel & Skandalis, Daphné & Smith, Kyle & Topa, Giorgio & van der Klaauw, Wilbert, 2021. "How economic crises affect inflation beliefs: Evidence from the Covid-19 pandemic," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 189(C), pages 443-469.
    13. Alan S. Blinder & Michael Ehrmann & Jakob de Haan & David-Jan Jansen, 2024. "Central Bank Communication with the General Public: Promise or False Hope?," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 62(2), pages 425-457, June.
    14. Gabriele Galati & Richhild Moessner & Maarten van Rooij, 2023. "The anchoring of long-term inflation expectations of consumers: insights from a new survey," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 75(1), pages 96-116.
    15. Munday, Tim & Brookes, James, 2021. "Mark my words: the transmission of central bank communication to the general public via the print media," Bank of England working papers 944, Bank of England.
    16. Cristina Conflitti & Roberta Zizza, 2021. "What’s behind firms’ inflation forecasts?," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 61(5), pages 2449-2475, November.
    17. Kosuke Aoki & Hibiki Ichiue & Tatsushi Okuda, 2019. "Consumers' Price Beliefs, Central Bank Communication, and Inflation Dynamics," Bank of Japan Working Paper Series 19-E-14, Bank of Japan.
    18. Christian Gillitzer & Nalini Prasad & Tim Robinson, 2021. "Political Attitudes and Inflation Expectations: Evidence and Implications," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 53(4), pages 605-634, June.
    19. Bartosz Maćkowiak & Filip Matějka & Mirko Wiederholt, 2023. "Rational Inattention: A Review," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 61(1), pages 226-273, March.
    20. Kumar, Saten, 2020. "Firms’ asset holdings and inflation expectations," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 170(C), pages 193-205.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Inflation Expectations; Machine Learning; Text Analysis; Big Data;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C53 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Forecasting and Prediction Models; Simulation Methods
    • C55 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Large Data Sets: Modeling and Analysis
    • E31 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Price Level; Inflation; Deflation
    • E37 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:boj:bojwps:wp21e12. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Bank of Japan (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/bojgvjp.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.