IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Central banks' response to Covid-19 in advanced economies


  • Paolo Cavallino
  • Fiorella De Fiore


Central banks in advanced economies reacted swiftly and forcefully to the Covid-19 pandemic, deploying the full range of crisis tools within weeks. The initial response focused primarily on easing financial stress and ensuring a smooth flow of credit to the private non-financial sector.The pandemic triggered complementary responses from monetary and fiscal authorities. Fiscal backstops and loan guarantees supported central bank actions. Asset purchases, designed to achieve central banks' objectives, helped contain the costs of fiscal expansions. The footprint of central banks' measures will be sizeable. Across the five largest advanced economies, balance sheets are projected to grow on average by 15-23% of GDP before end-2020 and to remain large in the near future.

Suggested Citation

  • Paolo Cavallino & Fiorella De Fiore, 2020. "Central banks' response to Covid-19 in advanced economies," BIS Bulletins 21, Bank for International Settlements.
  • Handle: RePEc:bis:bisblt:21

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: Full PDF document
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Andreas Schrimpf & Hyun Song Shin & Vladyslav Sushko, 2020. "Leverage and margin spirals in fixed income markets during the Covid-19 crisis," BIS Bulletins 2, Bank for International Settlements.
    2. Enrique Alberola-Ila & Yavuz Arslan & Gong Cheng & Richhild Moessner, 2020. "The fiscal response to the Covid-19 crisis in advanced and emerging market economies," BIS Bulletins 23, Bank for International Settlements.
    3. Stefan Avdjiev & Egemen Eren & Patrick McGuire, 2020. "Dollar funding costs during the Covid-19 crisis through the lens of the FX swap market," BIS Bulletins 1, Bank for International Settlements.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    RePEc Biblio mentions

    As found on the RePEc Biblio, the curated bibliography for Economics:
    1. > Economics of Welfare > Health Economics > Economics of Pandemics > Specific pandemics > Covid-19 > Economic policy > Money and monetary policy


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Stewart, Robert & Chowdhury, Murshed, 2021. "Banking sector distress and economic growth resilience: Asymmetric effects," The Journal of Economic Asymmetries, Elsevier, vol. 24(C).
    2. David M. Arseneau & José Fillat & Molly Mahar & Donald P. Morgan & Skander J. Van den Heuvel, 2022. "The Main Street Lending Program," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, vol. 28(1), June.
    3. Peter A.G. van Bergeijk, 2021. "Pandemic Economics," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 20401.
    4. Kakhkharov, Jakhongir & Bianchi, Robert J., 2022. "COVID-19 and policy responses: Early evidence in banks and FinTech stocks," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 74(C).
    5. Bob Hancke & Toon Van Overbeke & Dustin Voss, 2021. "Similar but different? Comparing economic policy responses to the Corona Crisis in the UK and Germany," LEQS – LSE 'Europe in Question' Discussion Paper Series 165, European Institute, LSE.
    6. Javier G. Gómez-Pineda, 2020. "The depth, length and shape of the covid-19 recession conveyed in 2020 growth forecasts," Borradores de Economia 1123, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
    7. Alina Danilowska, 2021. "The Impact of the COVID19 Pandemic on the Credit Market in Poland," European Research Studies Journal, European Research Studies Journal, vol. 0(3), pages 229-240.
    8. Galindo Gil, Hamilton, 2021. "What kind of firm is more responsive to the unconventional monetary policy?," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 81(C), pages 188-200.
    9. David M. Arseneau & José Fillat & Molly Mahar & Donald P. Morgan & Skander J. Van den Heuvel, 2021. "COVID Response: The Main Street Lending Program," Staff Reports 984, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Egemen Eren & Philip Wooldridge, 2021. "Non-bank financial institutions and the functioning of government bond markets," BIS Papers, Bank for International Settlements, number 119.
    2. Emanuel Kohlscheen & Benoit Mojon & Daniel Rees, 2020. "The macroeconomic spillover effects of the pandemic on the global economy," BIS Bulletins 4, Bank for International Settlements.
    3. Marlene Amstad & Giulio Cornelli & Leonardo Gambacorta & Dora Xia, 2020. "Investors' risk attitudes in the pandemic and the stock market: new evidence based on internet searches," BIS Bulletins 25, Bank for International Settlements.
    4. Fernando Eguren Martin & Mark Joy & Claudia Maurini & Alessandro Moro & Valerio Nispi Landi & Alessandro Schiavone & Carlos van Hombeeck, 2020. "Capital flows during the pandemic: lessons for a more resilient international financial architecture," Questioni di Economia e Finanza (Occasional Papers) 589, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    5. Carlos Cantú & Paolo Cavallino & Fiorella De Fiore & James Yetman, 2021. "A global database on central banks' monetary responses to Covid-19," BIS Working Papers 934, Bank for International Settlements.
    6. Raphael Auer & Giulio Cornelli & Jon Frost, 2020. "Covid-19, cash, and the future of payments," BIS Bulletins 3, Bank for International Settlements.
    7. Claudio Borio, 2020. "The Covid-19 economic crisis: dangerously unique," Business Economics, Palgrave Macmillan;National Association for Business Economics, vol. 55(4), pages 181-190, October.
    8. Boris Hofmann & Ilhyock Shim & Hyun Song Shin, 2020. "Emerging market economy exchange rates and local currency bond markets amid the Covid-19 pandemic," BIS Bulletins 5, Bank for International Settlements.
    9. Jason Allen & Milena Wittwer, 2021. "Centralizing Over-the-Counter Markets?," Staff Working Papers 21-39, Bank of Canada.
    10. Lalinsky, Tibor & Pál, Rozália, 2022. "Distribution of COVID-19 government support and its consequences for firm liquidity and solvency," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 305-335.
    11. Vissing-Jorgensen, Annette, 2021. "The Treasury Market in Spring 2020 and the Response of the Federal Reserve," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 124(C), pages 19-47.
    12. Iñaki Aldasoro & Wenqian Huang & Esti Kemp, 2020. "Cross-border links between banks and non-bank financial institutions," BIS Quarterly Review, Bank for International Settlements, September.
    13. Eichengreen, Barry & Park, Donghyun & Shin, Kwanho, 2021. "The shape of recovery: Implications of past experience for the duration of the COVID-19 recession," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 69(C).
    14. Penalver Adrian, & Szczerbowicz Urszula, 2021. "Monetary policy measures during the first phase of the Covid-19 crisis [Les mesures de politique monétaire pendant la première phase de la crise de la Covid-19]," Bulletin de la Banque de France, Banque de France, issue 234.
    15. Javier Olivera & Philippe Kerm, 2022. "Public support for tax policies in COVID-19 times: evidence from Luxembourg," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 29(6), pages 1395-1418, December.
    16. Ľuboš Pástor & M Blair Vorsatz & Jeffrey Pontiff, 0. "Mutual Fund Performance and Flows during the COVID-19 Crisis," The Review of Asset Pricing Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 10(4), pages 791-833.
    17. Cesa-Bianchi, Ambrogio & Eguren Martin, Fernando, 2021. "Dash for Dollars," CEPR Discussion Papers 16415, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    18. Enrique Esteban García-Escudero & Elisa J. Sánchez Pérez, 2020. "Los swaps de divisas entre bancos centrales," Occasional Papers 2025, Banco de España.
    19. Andrieș, Alin Marius & Ongena, Steven & Sprincean, Nicu, 2021. "The COVID-19 Pandemic and Sovereign Bond Risk," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 58(C).
    20. Alina Danilowska, 2021. "The Impact of the COVID19 Pandemic on the Credit Market in Poland," European Research Studies Journal, European Research Studies Journal, vol. 0(3), pages 229-240.

    More about this item

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bis:bisblt:21. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Christian Beslmeisl (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.