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Recognition of Business and Government Expenditures for Software as Investment: Methodology and Quantitative Impacts, 1959-98


  • Robert P. Parker
  • Bruce T. Grimm

    (Bureau of Economic Analysis)


The comprehensive benchmark revision of the national income and product accounts (NIPA’s), released in October of last year, newly recognized business and government expenditures for computer software as investment. This paper describes the methodology for annual and quarterly estimates of software investment, consumption of fixed capital, and business incomes. This description is an expansion of the technical notes describing the methodology that appeared in the August and December issues of the Survey of Current Business. The paper also describes the effects on the NIPA’s and their tabular presentation, of recognizing software.

Suggested Citation

  • Robert P. Parker & Bruce T. Grimm, 2000. "Recognition of Business and Government Expenditures for Software as Investment: Methodology and Quantitative Impacts, 1959-98," BEA Papers 0002, Bureau of Economic Analysis.
  • Handle: RePEc:bea:papers:0002

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Dennis Fixler & Kimberly Zieschang, 1999. "The productivity of the banking sector: integrating financial and production approaches to measuring financial service output," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 32(2), pages 547-569, April.
    2. Barnett, William A., 1978. "The user cost of money," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 1(2), pages 145-149.
    3. Donal J. Donovan, 1978. "Modeling the Demand for Liquid Assets: An Application to Canada (Etablissement d'un modèle de demande d'actifs liquides: application au Canada) (Construcción de un modelo de demanda de activos líqu," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 25(4), pages 676-704, December.
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    Cited by:

    1. Gavin Wallis, 2009. "Capital Services Growth in the UK: 1950 to 2006," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 71(6), pages 799-819, December.
    2. Rudolfs Bems, 2008. "Aggregate Investment Expenditures on Tradable and Nontradable Goods," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 11(4), pages 852-883, October.
    3. David Wasshausen & Brent R. Moulton, 2006. "The Role of Hedonic Methods in Measuring Real GDP in the United States," BEA Papers 0067, Bureau of Economic Analysis.
    4. Rouchy, Philippe, 2011. "Swedish embedded software and vertically integrated industries: an appraisal," MPRA Paper 50504, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Szalavetz, Andrea, 2007. "Műszaki fejlődés és tőkeintenzitás
      [Technological progress and capital intensity]
      ," Közgazdasági Szemle (Economic Review - monthly of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences), Közgazdasági Szemle Alapítvány (Economic Review Foundation), vol. 0(2), pages 184-198.

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    JEL classification:

    • E60 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - General


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