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¿Por qué en Colombia el Crédito al Sector Privado es tan Reducido

  • Adolfo Barajas
  • Enrique López

    ()

  • Hugo Oliveros

En Colombia desde finales de la década de los años noventa se observa un estancamiento de crédito real simultáneamente con el mal desempeño de la actividad productiva. Ese comportamiento del crédito generó la preocupación de los representantes del sector privado1 y de las autoridades económicas. El Banco Central en su informe al Congreso de julio de 2000 (p.45) se preguntaba sí la reducción del crédito que se observaba en la economía colombiana estaba ocasionada en un apretón de oferta o en un problema de demanda. Los investigadores económicos colombianos no han estado ajenos a esta discusión y han estudiado el fenómeno desde varios puntos de vista2. Coincidiendo todos los trabajos en la existencia de una reducción del crédito y en la búsqueda de su origen. Este trabajo examina también las causas que llevaron al estancamiento. La diferencia de este trabajo con los trabajos reseñados se encuentra en el enfoque macroeconómico que se tiene en el documento y en la utilización de un modelo econométrico que permite examinar la problemática del crédito en Colombia bajo un esquema lo suficientemente general que permita la posibilidad de desequilibrios en el mercado de crédito. Si esta característica se presenta, los mercados se ajustan por medio de las cantidades y no por un mecanismo de precio, en este caso la tasa de interés3.

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Paper provided by Banco de la Republica de Colombia in its series Borradores de Economia with number 185.

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  1. Levine, Ross, 1996. "Financial development and economic growth : views and agenda," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1678, The World Bank.
  2. Demirguc-Kent, Asli & Detragiache, Enrica, 1998. "Financial liberalization and financial fragility," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1917, The World Bank.
  3. S. Mishkin, Frederic, 1999. "Financial consolidation: Dangers and opportunities," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(2-4), pages 675-691, February.
  4. Gerard Caprio & Patrick Honohan, 1999. "Restoring Banking Stability: Beyond Supervised Capital Requirements," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 13(4), pages 43-64, Fall.
  5. Stiglitz, Joseph E & Weiss, Andrew, 1981. "Credit Rationing in Markets with Imperfect Information," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(3), pages 393-410, June.
  6. Barajas, Adolfo & Steiner, Roberto & Salazar, Natalia, 2000. "The impact of liberalization and foreign investment in Colombia's financial sector," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(1), pages 157-196, October.
  7. Bernanke, Ben S & Blinder, Alan S, 1988. "Credit, Money, and Aggregate Demand," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(2), pages 435-39, May.
  8. Martin, Christopher, 1990. "Corporate Borrowing and Credit Constraints: Structural Disequilibrium Estimates for the U.K," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 72(1), pages 78-86, February.
  9. Atish R. Ghosh & Swart R. Ghosh, 1999. "East Asia in the Aftermath; Was there a Crunch?," IMF Working Papers 99/38, International Monetary Fund.
  10. Bernanke, Ben & Gertler, Mark, 1995. "Inside the Black Box: The Credit Channel of Monetary Policy Transmission," Working Papers 95-15, C.V. Starr Center for Applied Economics, New York University.
  11. King, Stephen R, 1986. "Monetary Transmission: Through Bank Loans or Bank Liabilities?," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 18(3), pages 290-303, August.
  12. Sealey, C W, Jr, 1979. "Credit Rationing in the Commercial Loan Market: Estimates of a Structural Model under Conditions of Disequilibrium," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 34(3), pages 689-702, June.
  13. Ceyla PazarbaÅŸioÄŸlu, 1997. "A Credit Crunch? Finland in the Aftermath of the Banking Crisis," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 44(3), pages 315-327, September.
  14. Xavier Freixas & Jean-Charles Rochet, 1997. "Microeconomics of Banking," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262061937, June.
  15. Frederic S. Mishkin, 1995. "Symposium on the Monetary Transmission Mechanism," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(4), pages 3-10, Fall.
  16. Maddala, G S & Nelson, Forrest D, 1974. "Maximum Likelihood Methods for Models of Markets in Disequilibrium," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 42(6), pages 1013-30, November.
  17. Luis Eduardo Arango & Mauricio castillo, . "¿ Son Estilizadas las Regularidades del Ciclo Económico? Una Breve Revisión de la literatura," Borradores de Economia 115, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
  18. Laffont, Jean-Jacques & Garcia, Rene, 1977. "Disequilibrium Econometrics for Business Loans," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 45(5), pages 1187-1204, July.
  19. Bernanke, B. & Gertler, M. & Gilchrist, S., 1998. "The Financial Accelerator in a Quantitative Business Cycle Framework," Working Papers 98-03, C.V. Starr Center for Applied Economics, New York University.
  20. Kim, Hyun E., 1999. "Was the credit channel a key monetary transmission mechanism following the recent financial crisis in the Republic of Korea?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2103, The World Bank.
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