Assessing Enterprise Taxation and the Investment Climate in Pakistan
The Pakistan system of taxing enterprises has undergone some major changes in recent years. Nevertheless, the corporate tax system remains plagued by a number of problems. The existence of numerous exemption programs has significantly reduced tax revenues, and has greatly distorted the allocation of investment across sectors and asset types. There also seems to exist significant amounts of tax evasion, evasion that also distorts resource allocation, reduces tax revenues, and compromises the distributional objectives of the system. In part as a result of tax avoidance and tax evasion, the tax base has shrunk over time, further reducing revenues and leaving the more visible taxpayers still out of the tax net. The extensive use of tax incentives is seldom tracked, quantified, and evaluated, and the intended effects on economic growth are uncertain. The incentives are only one feature of the tax system that contributes to an overly complicated system, complications that illustrate the limitations of the tax administration. The tax system was designed for times and circumstances that are long past, and the system has evolved over time in a piecemeal, ad hoc manner with little apparent thought given to the ways in which the pieces of the system need to fit together.
|Date of creation:||01 Dec 2008|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Phone: 404-413-0235|
Web page: http://aysps.gsu.edu/isp/index.html
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Benito Arruñada, 2010.
"Pitfalls to Avoid when Measuring Institutions: Is 'Doing Business' Damaging Business?,"
451, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics.
- Arrunada, Benito, 2007. "Pitfalls to avoid when measuring institutions: Is Doing Business damaging business?," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 729-747, December.
- Benito Arruñada, 2007. "Pitfalls to avoid when measuring institutions: Is "Doing Business" damaging business?," Economics Working Papers 1040, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, revised Apr 2010.
- Tanzi, Vito & Zee, Howell H., 2000.
"Tax Policy for Emerging Markets: Developing Countries,"
National Tax Journal,
National Tax Association, vol. 53(n. 2), pages 299-322, June.
- Howell H. Zee & Vito Tanzi, 2000. "Tax Policy for Emerging Markets: Developing Countries," IMF Working Papers 00/35, International Monetary Fund.
- Gillis, Malcolm, 1985. "Micro and macroeconomics of tax reform : Indonesia," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 221-254, December.
- Jack M. Mintz, 1992. "Is There a Future for Capital Income Taxation?," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 108, OECD Publishing.
- Alan J. Auerbach & Michael P. Devereux & Helen Simpson, 2008.
"Taxing Corporate Income,"
NBER Working Papers
14494, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Harry Grubert & Joel Slemrod, 1998.
"The Effect Of Taxes On Investment And Income Shifting To Puerto Rico,"
The Review of Economics and Statistics,
MIT Press, vol. 80(3), pages 365-373, August.
- Harry Grubert & Joel Slemrod, 1994. "The Effect of Taxes on Investment and Income Shifting to Puerto Rico," NBER Working Papers 4869, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Desai, Mihir A. & Hines, James R. Jr., 2003. "Evaluating International Tax Reform," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 56(3), pages 487-502, September.
- James R. Hines Jr., 2005.
"Do Tax Havens Flourish?,"
in: Tax Policy and the Economy, Volume 19, pages 65-100
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Roy Bahl & Sally Wallace & Musharraf Cyan, 2008. "Pakistan: Provincial Government Taxation," International Center for Public Policy Working Paper Series, at AYSPS, GSU paper0807, International Center for Public Policy, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
- Bernstein, Jeffrey & Shah, Anwar, 1993. "Corporate tax structure and production," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1196, The World Bank.
- Desai, Mihir A. & Hines, James R. Jr., 2004. "Old Rules and New Realities: Corporate Tax Policy in a Global Setting," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 57(4), pages 937-60, December.
- Owens, Jeffrey, 2006. "Fundamental Tax Reform: An International Perspective," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 59(1), pages 131-64, March.
- Benjamin Russo, 2004. "A cost-benefit analysis of R&D tax incentives," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 37(2), pages 313-335, May.
- Richard M. Bird, 2003.
"Administrative Dimensions of Tax Reform,"
International Tax Program Papers
0302, International Tax Program, Institute for International Business, Joseph L. Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto, revised May 2003.
- Wayne Thirsk, 2008. "Tax Policy in Pakistan: An Assessment of Major Taxes and Options for Reform," International Center for Public Policy Working Paper Series, at AYSPS, GSU paper0808, International Center for Public Policy, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
- Wei Yu & Myles S. Wallace & Clark Nardinelli, 1991. "State Growth Rates: Taxes, Spending, and Catching Up," Public Finance Review, , vol. 19(1), pages 80-93, January.
- Asea, Patrick & Mendoza, Enrique G & Milesi-Ferretti, Gian Maria, 1996.
"On the Ineffectiveness of Tax Policy in Altering Long- Run Growth: Harberger's Superneutrality Conjecture,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
1378, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Mendoza, Enrique G. & Milesi-Ferretti, Gian Maria & Asea, Patrick, 1997. "On the ineffectiveness of tax policy in altering long-run growth: Harberger's superneutrality conjecture," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(1), pages 99-126, October.
- Roger H. Gordon & James R. Hines Jr., 2002.
NBER Working Papers
8854, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Neumann, Rebecca & Holman, Jill & Alm, James, 2009. "Globalization and tax policy," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 193-211, August.
- M. Ali Kemal, 2003. "Underground Economy and Tax Evasion in Pakistan A Critical Evaluation," PIDE-Working Papers 2003:184, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
- Auerbach, Alan J., 2002.
"Taxation and corporate financial policy,"
Handbook of Public Economics,
in: A. J. Auerbach & M. Feldstein (ed.), Handbook of Public Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 19, pages 1251-1292
- Robin Boadway & Neil Bruce & Jack Mintz, 1984. "Taxation, Inflation, and the Effective Marginal Tax Rate on Capital in Canada," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 17(1), pages 62-79, February.
- Michael Keen & David Wildasin, 2004. "Pareto-Efficient International Taxation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(1), pages 259-275, March.
- Hines, James R. Jr., 1999. "Lessons from Behavioral Responses to International Taxation," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 52(n. 2), pages 305-22, June.
- Barro, Robert J, 2000. " Inequality and Growth in a Panel of Countries," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 5(1), pages 5-32, March.
- Barbone, Luca & Das-Gupta, Arindam & De Wulf, Luc & Hansson, Anna, 1999. "Reforming tax systems - the World Bank record in the 1990s," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2237, The World Bank.
- Grubert, Harry, 1998. "Taxes and the division of foreign operating income among royalties, interest, dividends and retained earnings," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(2), pages 269-290, May.
- Umir Wahid & Sally Wallace, 2008. "Incidence of Taxes in Pakistan: Primer and Estimates," International Center for Public Policy Working Paper Series, at AYSPS, GSU paper0813, International Center for Public Policy, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ays:ispwps:paper0810. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Paul Benson)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.