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How should Individuals be Taxed? Combining "Simplified", Income, and Payroll Taxes in Ukraine

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Abstract

Individuals in most all countries face a wide range of direct taxes on their income, especially variants of the individual income tax and payroll taxes. For the income tax, attempts are often made to reduce the compliance and administrative costs of the tax by using “presumptive” or “simplified” methods, in which the tax liability is determined indirectly from some simple indicators that are more easily measured than the “true” tax base itself. However, when a “simplified” income tax is combined with other direct taxes on individuals, the ways in which these taxes interact, their combined effects on revenues, resource allocation, and income distribution, and the appropriate design of the overall system of these taxes remain unresolved – and unexplored – issues. This paper examines these issues, focusing on the experience of Ukraine . A simple computable general equilibrium model is used to quantify many of the effects of the “system” of simplified, income, and payroll taxes.

Suggested Citation

  • James Alm & Pablo Saavedra & Edward Sennoga, 2007. "How should Individuals be Taxed? Combining "Simplified", Income, and Payroll Taxes in Ukraine," International Center for Public Policy Working Paper Series, at AYSPS, GSU paper0711, International Center for Public Policy, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
  • Handle: RePEc:ays:ispwps:paper0711
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Fullerton, Don, 1982. "On the possibility of an inverse relationship between tax rates and government revenues," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 3-22, October.
    2. Fullerton, Don & Metcalf, Gilbert E., 2002. "Tax incidence," Handbook of Public Economics,in: A. J. Auerbach & M. Feldstein (ed.), Handbook of Public Economics, edition 1, volume 4, chapter 26, pages 1787-1872 Elsevier.
    3. Milka Casanegra de Jantscher & Vito Tanzi, 1987. "Presumptive Income Taxation; Administrative, Efficiency, and Equity Aspects," IMF Working Papers 87/54, International Monetary Fund.
    4. James Alm & Hugo López Castaño, 2002. "Payroll taxes in Colombia," INFORMES DE INVESTIGACIÓN 003316, FEDESARROLLO.
    5. Ahmad,Etisham & Stern,Nicholas, 1991. "The Theory and Practice of Tax Reform in Developing Countries," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521397421, March.
    6. James Alm and Joege Martinez Vazquez, 2003. ""Sizing" the problem of the Hard-to-Tax," International Center for Public Policy Working Paper Series, at AYSPS, GSU paper0321, International Center for Public Policy, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
    7. Richard Goode, 1981. "Some Economic Aspects of Tax Administration (Quelques aspects économiques de l'administration fiscale) (Algunos aspectos económicos de la administración de impuestos)," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 28(2), pages 249-274, June.
    8. Alm, James, 1985. "The Welfare Cost of the Underground Economy," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 23(2), pages 243-263, April.
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    10. Richard M. Bird & Sally Wallace, 2003. "Is It Really so Hard to Tax the Hard-to-Tax? The Context and Role of Presumptive Taxes," International Tax Program Papers 0307, International Tax Program, Institute for International Business, Joseph L. Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto.
    11. Gale, William G. & Holtzblatt, Janet, 1997. "On the Possibility of a No-Return Tax System," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 50(3), pages 475-85, September.
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    Keywords

    Income Tax; payroll Tax; Ukraine; individual tax; presumptive method;

    JEL classification:

    • H22 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Incidence
    • H24 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Personal Income and Other Nonbusiness Taxes and Subsidies
    • H26 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Tax Evasion and Avoidance
    • H30 - Public Economics - - Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents - - - General
    • H55 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Social Security and Public Pensions

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