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Descentralización en Latinoamérica desde una perspectiva de países pequeños: Bolivia, El Salvador, Ecuador y Nicaragua

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Abstract

El objetivo principal de este trabajo es examinar, comparar y extraer lecciones del proceso de descentralización en cuatro países latinoamericanos de pequeño tamaño. Varias lecciones se desprenden de este ejercicio. Primero, el proceso de descentralización puede ser virtualmente tan exigente y complejo en un país pequeño, como Nicaragua, como en un país muchas veces mayor, como México. Segundo, no existe una forma única y superior de descentralización fiscal. Tercero, consciente ó inconscientemente los países toman la decisión, con grandes consecuencias, de reformar el proceso de descentralización de una forma evolutiva y gradual, ó de una forma comprensiva y de golpe. Cuarto, el proceso de descentralización se puede realizar reforzando y apoyando las instituciones tradicionales descentralizadas, en particular los municipios, ó se puede realizar creando nuevas instituciones descentralizadas. Quinto, aunque la descentralización somete retos técnicos importantes, la descentralización es inminentemente un proceso político exigido a veces desde abajo ó como una solución desde arriba. La discusión se concentra en seis áreas principales: estructura vertical del gobierno, asignación de ingresos y sistema de transferencias, asignación de gastos, proceso presupuestario municipal y acceso al crédito por los municipios.

Suggested Citation

  • Francisco Javier Arz & Jorge Martinez-Vazquez, 2003. "Descentralización en Latinoamérica desde una perspectiva de países pequeños: Bolivia, El Salvador, Ecuador y Nicaragua," International Center for Public Policy Working Paper Series, at AYSPS, GSU paper0303, International Center for Public Policy, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
  • Handle: RePEc:ays:ispwps:paper0303
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Dillinger,William R. & Webb,Steven Benjamin, 1999. "Fiscal management in federal democracies : Argentina and Brazil," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2121, The World Bank.
    2. William Dillinger & Steven B. Webb, 1999. "Fiscal management in federal democracies: Argentina and Brazil," Económica, Departamento de Economía, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, vol. 0(3), pages 423-483.
    3. Rowland, Allison M., 2001. "Population as a Determinant of Local Outcomes under Decentralization: Illustrations from Small Municipalities in Bolivia and Mexico," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(8), pages 1373-1389, August.
    4. Charles E. McLure, Jr. & Jorge Martinez-Vazquez, 1998. "Intergovernmental Fiscal Relations in Vietnam," International Center for Public Policy Working Paper Series, at AYSPS, GSU paper9802, International Center for Public Policy, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
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    Cited by:

    1. Roy Bahl & Jorge Martinez-Vazquez, 2013. "Sequencing Fiscal Decentralization," Annals of Economics and Finance, Society for AEF, vol. 14(2), pages 641-687, November.

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    Decentralization;

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