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A Copula Based Bayesian Approach for Paid-Incurred Claims Models for Non-Life Insurance Reserving

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  • Gareth W. Peters
  • Alice X. D. Dong
  • Robert Kohn

Abstract

Our article considers the class of recently developed stochastic models that combine claims payments and incurred losses information into a coherent reserving methodology. In particular, we develop a family of Heirarchical Bayesian Paid-Incurred-Claims models, combining the claims reserving models of Hertig et al. (1985) and Gogol et al. (1993). In the process we extend the independent log-normal model of Merz et al. (2010) by incorporating different dependence structures using a Data-Augmented mixture Copula Paid-Incurred claims model. The utility and influence of incorporating both payment and incurred losses into estimating of the full predictive distribution of the outstanding loss liabilities and the resulting reserves is demonstrated in the following cases: (i) an independent payment (P) data model; (ii) the independent Payment-Incurred Claims (PIC) data model of Merz et al. (2010); (iii) a novel dependent lag-year telescoping block diagonal Gaussian Copula PIC data model incorporating conjugacy via transformation; (iv) a novel data-augmented mixture Archimedean copula dependent PIC data model. Inference in such models is developed via a class of adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling algorithms. These incorporate a data-augmentation framework utilized to efficiently evaluate the likelihood for the copula based PIC model in the loss reserving triangles. The adaptation strategy is based on representing a positive definite covariance matrix by the exponential of a symmetric matrix as proposed by Leonard et al. (1992).

Suggested Citation

  • Gareth W. Peters & Alice X. D. Dong & Robert Kohn, 2012. "A Copula Based Bayesian Approach for Paid-Incurred Claims Models for Non-Life Insurance Reserving," Papers 1210.3849, arXiv.org, revised Dec 2012.
  • Handle: RePEc:arx:papers:1210.3849
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    File URL: http://arxiv.org/pdf/1210.3849
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Aas, Kjersti & Czado, Claudia & Frigessi, Arnoldo & Bakken, Henrik, 2009. "Pair-copula constructions of multiple dependence," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(2), pages 182-198, April.
    2. Peters, Gareth W. & Wüthrich, Mario V. & Shevchenko, Pavel V., 2010. "Chain ladder method: Bayesian bootstrap versus classical bootstrap," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(1), pages 36-51, August.
    3. repec:sae:ecolab:v:16:y:2006:i:2:p:1-2 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Gareth W. Peters & Mario V. Wuthrich & Pavel V. Shevchenko, 2010. "Chain ladder method: Bayesian bootstrap versus classical bootstrap," Papers 1004.2548, arXiv.org.
    5. Gogol, Daniel, 1993. "Using expected loss ratios in reserving," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(3), pages 297-299, June.
    6. Merz, Michael & Wüthrich, Mario V., 2010. "Paid-incurred chain claims reserving method," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(3), pages 568-579, June.
    7. Nikolay Nenovsky & S. Statev, 2006. "Introduction," Post-Print halshs-00260898, HAL.
    8. Mack, Thomas, 1993. "Distribution-free Calculation of the Standard Error of Chain Ladder Reserve Estimates," ASTIN Bulletin: The Journal of the International Actuarial Association, Cambridge University Press, vol. 23(02), pages 213-225, November.
    9. Aleksey Min & Claudia Czado, 2010. "Bayesian Inference for Multivariate Copulas Using Pair-Copula Constructions," Journal of Financial Econometrics, Society for Financial Econometrics, vol. 8(4), pages 511-546, Fall.
    10. Paul Embrechts, 2009. "Copulas: A Personal View," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 76(3), pages 639-650.
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    Cited by:

    1. Efstathios Panayi & Gareth Peters, 2015. "Stochastic simulation framework for the Limit Order Book using liquidity motivated agents," Papers 1501.02447, arXiv.org, revised Jan 2015.
    2. repec:wsi:ijfexx:v:02:y:2015:i:02:n:s2424786315500139 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Ames, Matthew & Bagnarosa, Guillaume & Peters, Gareth W., 2017. "Violations of uncovered interest rate parity and international exchange rate dependences," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 73(PA), pages 162-187.

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