IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Equilibrium Distribution of Labor Productivity: A Theoretical Model


  • Hideaki Aoyama
  • Hiroshi Iyetomi
  • Hiroshi Yoshikawa


We construct a theoretical model for equilibrium distribution of workers across sectors with different labor productivity, assuming that a sector can accommodate a limited number of workers which depends only on its productivity. A general formula for such distribution of productivity is obtained, using the detail-balance condition necessary for equilibrium in the Ehrenfest-Brillouin model. We also carry out an empirical analysis on the average number of workers in given productivity sectors on the basis of an exhaustive dataset in Japan. The theoretical formula succeeds in explaining the two distinctive observational facts in a unified way, that is, a Boltzmann distribution with negative temperature on low-to-medium productivity side and a decreasing part in a power-law form on high productivity side.

Suggested Citation

  • Hideaki Aoyama & Hiroshi Iyetomi & Hiroshi Yoshikawa, 2012. "Equilibrium Distribution of Labor Productivity: A Theoretical Model," Papers 1205.2470,
  • Handle: RePEc:arx:papers:1205.2470

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: Latest version
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Peter Diamond, 2011. "Unemployment, Vacancies, Wages," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 101(4), pages 1045-1072, June.
    2. Hiroshi Yoshikawa, 2003. "The Role of Demand in Macroeconomics," The Japanese Economic Review, Japanese Economic Association, vol. 54(1), pages 1-27.
    3. Dale T. Mortensen, 2011. "Markets with Search Friction and the DMP Model," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 101(4), pages 1073-1091, June.
    4. Christopher A. Pissarides, 2011. "Equilibrium in the Labor Market with Search Frictions," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 101(4), pages 1092-1105, June.
    5. Scalas, Enrico & Garibaldi, Ubaldo, 2009. "A Dynamic Probabilistic Version of the Aoki-Yoshikawa Sectoral Productivity Model," Economics - The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW), vol. 3, pages 1-10.
    6. Hideaki Aoyama & Hiroshi Yoshikawa & Hiroshi Iyetomi & Yoshi Fujiwara, 2010. "Productivity dispersion: facts, theory, and implications," Journal of Economic Interaction and Coordination, Springer;Society for Economic Science with Heterogeneous Interacting Agents, vol. 5(1), pages 27-54, June.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:arx:papers:1205.2470. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (arXiv administrators). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.