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Growth and the Environment in Canada: An Empirical Analysis

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  • Kathleen M. Day

    () (University of Ottawa, Department of Economics)

  • R. Quentin Grafton

    () (Australian National University, Asia Pacific School of Economics and Government)

Abstract

Standard reduced form models are estimated for Canada to examine the relationships between real per capita GDP and four measures of environmental degradation. Of the four chosen measures of environmental degradation, only concentrations of carbon monoxide appear to decline in the long run with increases in real per capita income. The data used in the reduced form models are also tested for the presence of unit roots and for the existence of cointegration between each of the measures of environmental degradation and per capita income. Unit root tests indicate nonstationarity in logs of the measures of environmental degradation and per capita income. The Engle-Granger test and the maximum eigenvalue test suggest that per capita income and the measures of environmental degradation are not cointegrated, or that a long-term relationship between the variables does not exist. Causality tests also indicate a bi-directional causality, rather than a uni-directional causality, from income to the environment. The results suggest that Canada does not have the luxury of being able to grow out of its environmental problems. The implication is that to prevent further environmental degradation, Canada requires concerted policies and incentives to reduce pollution intensity per unit of output across sectors, to shift from more to less pollution-producing-outputs and to lower the environmental damage associated with aggregate consumption.

Suggested Citation

  • Kathleen M. Day & R. Quentin Grafton, 2002. "Growth and the Environment in Canada: An Empirical Analysis," Economics and Environment Network Working Papers 0207, Australian National University, Economics and Environment Network.
  • Handle: RePEc:anu:eenwps:0207
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    2. Fodha, Mouez & Zaghdoud, Oussama, 2010. "Economic growth and pollutant emissions in Tunisia: An empirical analysis of the environmental Kuznets curve," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 1150-1156, February.
    3. Al-Mulali, Usama & Saboori, Behnaz & Ozturk, Ilhan, 2015. "Investigating the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis in Vietnam," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 123-131.
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    5. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Shafiullah, Muhammad & Papavassiliou, Vassilios & Hammoudeh, Shawkat, 2017. "The CO2-Growth nexus revisited: A nonparametric analysis for G7 economies over nearly two centuries," MPRA Paper 79019, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 07 May 2017.
    6. Stern, David I., 2004. "The Rise and Fall of the Environmental Kuznets Curve," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1419-1439, August.
    7. David I. Stern, 2004. "Diffusion of Emissions Abating Technology," Rensselaer Working Papers in Economics 0420, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Department of Economics.
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    10. repec:eee:eneeco:v:65:y:2017:i:c:p:355-374 is not listed on IDEAS
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    17. David I. Stern, 2005. "Reversal in the Trend of Global Anthropogenic Sulfur Emissions," Rensselaer Working Papers in Economics 0504, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Department of Economics.
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    19. Mrabet, Zouhair & Alsamara, Mouyad, 2017. "Testing the Kuznets Curve hypothesis for Qatar: A comparison between carbon dioxide and ecological footprint," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 1366-1375.
    20. Miloud Lacheheb & A. S. Abdul Rahim & Abdalla Sirag, 2015. "Economic Growth and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Investigating the Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis in Algeria," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 5(4), pages 1125-1132.
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    23. Saboori, Behnaz & Sulaiman, Jamalludin & Mohd, Saidatulakmal, 2012. "Economic growth and CO2 emissions in Malaysia: A cointegration analysis of the Environmental Kuznets Curve," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 184-191.

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    Keywords

    environment; economic growth; Canada;

    JEL classification:

    • Q2 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation
    • C2 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables

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