Agricultural Trade Costs: 1965-2010
International trade costs are known to be large but difficult to measure. Using a microfounded gravity equation based on the framework in Novy (2011), this study estimates an indirect measure of multilateral trade costs for tradable goods in agriculture. Using production and bilateral trade data along with plausible values of the elasticity of substitution, we find that median global agricultural trade costs were 285 percent in 1965, on an ad-valorem equivalent basis, before declining dramatically to a 118 percent ad-valorem equivalent in 2010. There is considerable variation in agricultural trade costs, bilaterally, and within various policy arrangements such as regional integration and the GATT/WTO. Statistical analysis of the determinants of agricultural trade costs largely confirms this variation: bilateral and regional free trade initiatives lower international trade costs by 36 percent on average, whereas GATT/WTO membership lowers trade costs by nearly 20 percent.
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- de Sousa, J. & Mayer, T. & Zignago, S., 2011.
"Market access in global and regional trade,"
358, Banque de France.
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- Thierry Mayer & Soledad Zignago, 2005. "Market Access in Global and Regional Trade," Working Papers 2005-02, CEPII research center.
- Soledad Zignago & Thierry Mayer, 2005. "Market Access in Global and Regional Trade," Sciences Po publications 2005-02, Sciences Po.
- De Sousa, Jose & Mayer, Thierry & Zignago, Soledad, 2011. "Market access in global and regional trade," MPRA Paper 35602, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Shang-Jin Wei, 1996. "Intra-National versus International Trade: How Stubborn are Nations in Global Integration?," NBER Working Papers 5531, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Anderson, Michael A & Smith, Stephen L S, 1999. "Do National Borders Really Matter? Canada-US Regional Trade Reconsidered," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 7(2), pages 219-27, May.
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