Wage Differentials in Italy: Market Forces, Institutions, and Inflation
In: Differences and Changes in Wage Structures
During the 1970s, Italy experienced an extreme compression of wage differentials, similar to the better-known situation in Sweden. Most evidence suggests that this compression came to a stop around 1982-83, coincident with a major institutional change (in the form of the escalator clause in Italian union contracts), a major economic change (the slowdown in inflation), a major technological change (industrial restructuring and the computer revolution), and a major political change (the loss of support for unions and their egalitarian pay policies). While we cannot definitively distinguish among the relative influences of institutions, market forces, technology and politics on the evolution of earnings inequality in Italy, our analysis of skill level wage differentials and our comparisons at the individual level with the more laissez-faire system of the United States suggest that both inflation and egalitarian wage-setting institutions have importantly influenced Italian wage compression in the regular sector of the economy. Yet, this very compression may well have contributed to the flight away from the regular sector of the economy at both ends of the skill distribution, plausibly leading to a greater overall degree of inequality for the whole economy than is apparent from our analysis of wage differentials in the regular sector.
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- Lawrence F. Katz & Kevin M. Murphy, 1992.
"Changes in Relative Wages, 1963–1987: Supply and Demand Factors,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
Oxford University Press, vol. 107(1), pages 35-78.
- Katz, L.F. & Murphy, K.M., 1991. "Changes in Relative Wages, 1963-1987: Supply and Demand Factors," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1580, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- Lawrence F. Katz & Kevin M. Murphy, 1991. "Changes in Relative Wages, 1963-1987: Supply and Demand Factors," NBER Working Papers 3927, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Richard M. Locke, 1992. "The demise of the national union in Italy: Lessons for comparative industrial relations theory," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 45(2), pages 229-249, January.
- Bertola, Giuseppe, 1990. "Job security, employment and wages," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 851-879, June.
- Hibbs, Douglas Jr. & Locking, Hakan, 1996. "Wage compression, wage drift and wage inflation in Sweden," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(2), pages 109-141, September.
- Richard M. Locke, 1992. "The Demise of the National Union in Italy: Lessons for Comparative Industrial Relations Theory," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 45(2), pages 229-249, January.
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