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IRAs and Saving

In: The Effects of Taxation on Capital Accumulation

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  • Steven F. Venti
  • David A. Wise

Abstract

Increasing current Individual Retirement Account (IRA) limits would lead to substantial increases in tax-deferred saving according to evidence in the paper, based on the 1983 Survey of Consumer Finances. For example, the recentTreasury Plan would increase IRA Contributions by about 30 percent. The primary focus of the paper, however, is the effect of limit increases on othersaving. How much of the IRA increase would be offset by reduction in non-tax-deferred saving? The weight of the evidence suggests that very little of the increase would be offset by reduction in other financial assets,possibly 10 to 20 percent. The estimates suggest that 45 to 55 percent of the IRA increase would be funded by reduction in expenditure for other goods and services, and about 35 percent by reduced taxes. The analysis rests on a savings decision structure recognizing the constraint that the IRA limit places on the allocation of current income; it is a constrained optimization model with the IRA limit the principle constraint. The evidence also suggests substantial variation in saving behavior among segments of the population. In addition, it appears that IRAs do not serve as a substitute fo rprivate pension plans. Thus the legislative goal of disproportionately increasing retirement saving among persons without pension plans is apparently not being realized. But the more general goal of increasing general saving is.
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Suggested Citation

  • Steven F. Venti & David A. Wise, 1987. "IRAs and Saving," NBER Chapters,in: The Effects of Taxation on Capital Accumulation, pages 7-52 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberch:11344
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Steven F. Venti & David A. Wise, 1988. "The Determinants of IRA Contributions and the Effect of Limit Changes," NBER Chapters,in: Pensions in the U.S. Economy, pages 9-52 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Fischer, Stanley, 1979. "Capital Accumulation on the Transition Path in a Monetary Optimizing Model," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(6), pages 1433-1439, November.
    3. Obstfeld, Maurice, 1984. "Multiple Stable Equilibria in an Optimizing Perfect-Foresight Model," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(1), pages 223-228, January.
    4. Maurice Obstfeld, 1985. "The Capital Inflows Problem Revisited: A Stylized Model of Southern Cone Disinflation," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 52(4), pages 605-625.
    5. Calvo, Guillermo A, 1979. "On Models of Money and Perfect Foresight," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 20(1), pages 83-103, February.
    6. Diamond, P. A. & Hausman, J. A., 1984. "Individual retirement and savings behavior," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, pages 81-114.
    7. Miguel Sidrauski, 1967. "Inflation and Economic Growth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 75, pages 796-796.
    8. Hausman, Jerry & Ruud, Paul, 1984. "Family Labor Supply with Taxes," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, pages 242-248.
    9. Michael D. Hurd & John B. Shoven, 1985. "The Distributional Impact of Social Security," NBER Chapters,in: Pensions, Labor, and Individual Choice, pages 193-222 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. B. Douglas Bernheim, 1987. "Dissaving after Retirement: Testing the Pure Life Cycle Hypothesis," NBER Chapters,in: Issues in Pension Economics, pages 237-280 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. Blackorby, Charles & Boyce, Richard & Russell, R Robert, 1978. "Estimation of Demand Systems Generated by the Gorman Polar Form: A Generalization of the S-Branch Utility Tree," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(2), pages 345-363, March.
    12. Deaton, Angus & Meullbauer, John, 1981. "Functional Forms for Labor Supply and Commodity Demands with and without Quantity Restrictions," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(6), pages 1521-1532, November.
    13. Brown, Murray & Heien, Dale M, 1972. "The S-Branch Utility Tree: A Generalization of the Linear Expenditure System," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 40(4), pages 737-747, July.
    14. Mervyn A. King & Jonathan I. Leape, 1984. "Wealth and Portfolio Composition: Theory and Evidence," NBER Working Papers 1468, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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