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Human Capital, Spatial Mobility, and Lock-in – The Experience of Candidate Countries


  • Daniela Andren

    (University of Gothenburg)

  • Tamas Bartus

    (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics)

  • Herbert Brücker

    (German Institute for Economic Research)

  • John Earle

    (Institut für die Zukunft der Arbeit)

  • Jan Fidrmuc

    (Centre for European Integration Studies)

  • Mihails Hazans

    (University of Latvia)

  • Peter Huber
  • Gábor Kertesi

    (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics)

  • Janos Köllö

    (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics)

  • Dana Sapatoru

    (Upjohn Institute for Employment Research)

  • Ken Smith

    (Centre for European Integration Studies)

  • Parvati Trübswetter

    (Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich)


Minimum wage increases in Hungary significantly increased labour costs, reduced employment in the small firm sector, and adversely influenced the job retention and job finding probabilities of low-wage workers. Discrimination on ethnic grounds hampers regional labour market adjustment in the candidate countries and may be considered an important element causing regional "lock-in". Returns to education increased dramatically during transition, which caused wage inequality to increase substantially. Furthermore low-skilled workers are the main group with the largest difficulties in adjusting to labour market shocks. The study shows that lacking regional mobility in the candidate countries is an important element in explaining the persistence of regional disparities in the new member states and candidate countries and that the consequences of the selectivity of migration with respect to education may have implications for the sending regions.

Suggested Citation

  • Daniela Andren & Tamas Bartus & Herbert Brücker & John Earle & Jan Fidrmuc & Mihails Hazans & Peter Huber & Gábor Kertesi & Janos Köllö & Dana Sapatoru & Ken Smith & Parvati Trübswetter, 2004. "Human Capital, Spatial Mobility, and Lock-in – The Experience of Candidate Countries," WIFO Studies, WIFO, number 25394, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:wfo:wstudy:25394

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Bender, Stefan & Haas, Anette & Klose, Christoph, 2000. "IAB Employment Subsample 1975-1995 Opportunities for Analysis Provided by the Anonymised Subsample," IZA Discussion Papers 117, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
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