IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Including substitution of inputs in DEA models


  • Bogusla Guzik

    () (Katedra Ekonometrii, Akademia Ekonomiczna, Poland)


Classic DEA models (e.g., CCR or super-efficiency DEA) assume that inputs are complementary and there is no substitution of inputs. The lack of substitution is a result of using the same input multiplier for all inputs. The author indicates that there is a possibility of including the substitution of inputs by using individual multiplier for each input. This is a characteristic of so-called non-radial DEA, which was proposed by Dyson and Thanassoulis (1992). The author presents some simple measures of substitution which are based on individual multipliers of inputs: substitution range, substitution index, substitution intensity. The substitution index describes what change of initial structure of inputs is needed to reach the optimal technology. The substitution intensity describes the velocity of necessary decrease of one input induced by an increase or not as fast as expected a decrease of the second input. Another characteristic of substitution is a substitution line the estimation of which is also proposed by the author.

Suggested Citation

  • Bogusla Guzik, 2007. "Including substitution of inputs in DEA models," Operations Research and Decisions, Wroclaw University of Technology, Institute of Organization and Management, vol. 3, pages 71-92.
  • Handle: RePEc:wut:journl:v:3-4:y:2007:p:71-92

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Per Andersen & Niels Christian Petersen, 1993. "A Procedure for Ranking Efficient Units in Data Envelopment Analysis," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 39(10), pages 1261-1264, October.
    2. Thanassoulis, E. & Dyson, R. G., 1992. "Estimating preferred target input-output levels using data envelopment analysis," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 56(1), pages 80-97, January.
    3. Charnes, A. & Cooper, W. W. & Rhodes, E., 1978. "Measuring the efficiency of decision making units," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 2(6), pages 429-444, November.
    4. R. D. Banker & A. Charnes & W. W. Cooper, 1984. "Some Models for Estimating Technical and Scale Inefficiencies in Data Envelopment Analysis," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 30(9), pages 1078-1092, September.
    5. Tone, Kaoru, 2001. "A slacks-based measure of efficiency in data envelopment analysis," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 130(3), pages 498-509, May.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wut:journl:v:3-4:y:2007:p:71-92. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Piotr Wawrzynowski). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.