From banks to bonds: a problem resolved? A perspective from the LDC debt literature
The anouncement in October 1995 of an agreement with Peru marked the concluding stages of the commercial bank debt crisis tirggered by Mexico in August 1982. With its completion all major Latin American nations will have succeeded in exchanging partially defaulted bank loans into marketed bonds therefore normalizing their external financial relations. After a lost decade'of great depression proportions for the continent, and stimulated by these post 1989 'Brady' agreements, the flow of net private funding to the developing countries approximately quadroupled in the present decade to reach almost $175 billion in 1994 (Sachs, 1990; World Bank, 1994) Recognizing that capital markets rather than the banks have been responsible for around half of the renewed flows, this survey assesses the contemporary relevance of the debt literature which was to mimic during the previous decade the earlier growth of commercial bank claims on LDCs. Although comprehensive surveys are available elsewhere, our intention is to review key arguments in the light of the securitization of finance during the present decade(see Eaton et al., 1986; Eaton and Taylor, 1986; Cohen, 1991; Eaton, 1993). The survey begins with theoretical aspects of the borrowing and lending decision, assuming optimizing agents, and noting the unavoidable complications introduced by sovereign risk which the literature has emphasized. Subsequently two key practical considerations are introduced, political exigency in the demand for loans and market derived instability in their supply. Difficulties in both of these areas were implicated in the financial crisis which culminated in the devaluation of the Mexican peso in December 1994. By offering the prospect that future crises could be contained without threats to the banking system necessitating official intervention, the revival of the capital market finance which favoured Mexico in the first half of the 1990s has been widely welcomed. Large-scale multilateral support in early 1995, however, was to cast doubt on this assumption and a final section therefore addresses changing perceptions of the role of the IMF in crisis management. If 'securitization' is seen as a return to the nineteenth-century norm in which bond issues, portfolio and direct investment dominated capital inflows to LDCs, comparitive studies suggest that a market panacea has not been rediscovered. Major loan expansions in the 1820s, 1880s 1900-14 and the 1920s all ended in default crises despite being dominated by bond finance (Eichengreen and Lindert, 1989). The fragile response of international investors to emerging market risk in general during early 1995 certainly suggests that the potential for systemic crises has not been eliminated by renewed reliance on marketed instruments. By distinguishing between problems which are general to international lending and those unique to bank intermediation, the survey attempts to highlight the basic requirements for sustainable capital inflows to LDCs. © 1997 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
To our knowledge, this item is not available for
download. To find whether it is available, there are three
1. Check below under "Related research" whether another version of this item is available online.
2. Check on the provider's web page whether it is in fact available.
3. Perform a search for a similarly titled item that would be available.
Volume (Year): 9 (1997)
Issue (Month): 2 ()
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/5102/home|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Bulow, J. & Rogoff, K., 1988.
"Sovereign Debt: Is To Forgive To Forget?,"
411, Stockholm - International Economic Studies.
- Andrew Berg & Jeffrey Sachs, 1988.
"The Debt Crisis: Structural Explanations of Country Performance,"
NBER Working Papers
2607, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Berg, Andrew & Sachs, Jeffrey, 1988. "The debt crisis structural explanations of country performance," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 271-306, November.
- Stiglitz, Joseph E & Weiss, Andrew, 1981. "Credit Rationing in Markets with Imperfect Information," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(3), pages 393-410, June.
- Eaton, Jonathan, 1993.
"Sovereign Debt: A Primer,"
World Bank Economic Review,
World Bank Group, vol. 7(2), pages 137-72, May.
- Eaton, Jonathan, 1992. "Sovereign debt : a primer," Policy Research Working Paper Series 855, The World Bank.
- Jonathan Eaton, 1991. "Sovereign Debt: A Primer," Boston University - Institute for Economic Development 21, Boston University, Institute for Economic Development.
- Reinhart, Carmen & Calvo, Guillermo & Leiderman, Leonardo, 1992. "Capital Inflows and Real Exchange Rate Appreciation in Latin America," MPRA Paper 13843, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Eaton, Jonathan & Taylor, Lance, 1986. "Developing country finance and debt," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 209-265, June.
- Jeremy Bulow & Kenneth Rogoff & Afonso S. Bevilaqua, 1992. "Official Creditor Seniority and Burden-Sharing in the Former Soviet Bloc," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 23(1), pages 195-234.
- Michael P. Dooley, 1988. "Buy-Backs and Market Valuation of External Debt," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 35(2), pages 215-229, June.
- Eaton, Jonathan & Gersovitz, Mark, 1981. "Debt with Potential Repudiation: Theoretical and Empirical Analysis," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 48(2), pages 289-309, April.
- Jaffee, Dwight M & Russell, Thomas, 1976. "Imperfect Information, Uncertainty, and Credit Rationing," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 90(4), pages 651-66, November.
- Paul R. Krugman, 1988. "Market-Based Debt-Reduction Schemes," NBER Working Papers 2587, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wly:jintdv:v:9:y:1997:i:2:p:207-220. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Wiley-Blackwell Digital Licensing)or (Christopher F. Baum)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.