IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Poverty and expenditure pattern of households in Pakistan and South Africa: a comparative study


  • Ranjan Ray

    (University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia)


This paper compares the poverty rates of male- and female-headed households in Pakistan and, also, in South Africa. It finds that in South Africa, female-headed households are unconditionally poorer than the others. In Pakistan, however, this result holds only in the presence of economies of household size and adult|child consumption relativities, not in the per capita case. The study estimates equivalence scales in the presence of non-linearities in the functional form, and provides evidence of significant economies of household size in both countries. The paper proposes an alternative test of gender bias in the intrahousehold allocation of resources, and applies it to the Pakistani and South African data sets. The results point to some interesting dissimilarities between the Pakistani and South African evidence. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Suggested Citation

  • Ranjan Ray, 2000. "Poverty and expenditure pattern of households in Pakistan and South Africa: a comparative study," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 12(2), pages 241-256.
  • Handle: RePEc:wly:jintdv:v:12:y:2000:i:2:p:241-256 DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1328(200003)12:2<241::AID-JID654>3.0.CO;2-G

    Download full text from publisher

    To our knowledge, this item is not available for download. To find whether it is available, there are three options:
    1. Check below whether another version of this item is available online.
    2. Check on the provider's web page whether it is in fact available.
    3. Perform a search for a similarly titled item that would be available.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. J.V. Meenakshi & Ranjan Ray, 1999. "Impact of Household Size, Family Composition and Socio Economic Characteristics on Poverty in Rural India," Working papers 68, Centre for Development Economics, Delhi School of Economics.
    2. Foster, James & Greer, Joel & Thorbecke, Erik, 1984. "A Class of Decomposable Poverty Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(3), pages 761-766, May.
    3. Grosh, M.E. & Glewwe, P., 1995. "A Guide to Living Standards Measurement Study Surveys and their Data Sets," Papers 120, World Bank - Living Standards Measurement.
    4. Haddad, Lawrence & Kanbur, Ravi, 1990. "How Serious Is the Neglect of Intra-Household Inequality?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 100(402), pages 866-881, September.
    5. Bosch-Domenech, Antoni, 1991. "Economies of scale, location, age, and sex discrimination in household demand," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 35(8), pages 1589-1595, December.
    6. Handa, Sudhanshu, 1996. "Expenditure behavior and children's welfare: An analysis of female headed households in Jamaica," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(1), pages 165-187, June.
    7. Dreze, Jean & Srinivasan, P. V., 1997. "Widowhood and poverty in rural India: Some inferences from household survey data," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(2), pages 217-234, December.
    8. Quibria, M G, 1995. " Gender and Poverty: Issues and Policies with Special Reference to Asian Developing Countries," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 9(4), pages 373-411, December.
    9. Haddad, L. & Hoddinott, J., 1991. "Gender Aspects of Household Expenditures and Resource Allocation in the Cote d'Ivoire," Economics Series Working Papers 99112, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    10. Subramaniam, Ramesh, 1996. "Gender-Bias in India: The Importance of Household Fixed-Effects," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 48(2), pages 280-299, April.
    11. Lancaster, Geoffrey & Ray, Ranjan & Valenzuela, Maria Rebecca, 1999. "A Cross-Country Study of Household Poverty and Inequality on Unit Record Household Budget Data," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 48(1), pages 177-208, October.
    12. Lancaster, Geoffrey & Ray, Ranjan, 1998. "Comparison of Alternative Models of Household Equivalence Scales: The Australian Evidence on Unit Record Data," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 74(224), pages 1-14, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Maitra, Pushkar & Ray, Ranjan, 2003. "The effect of transfers on household expenditure patterns and poverty in South Africa," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 71(1), pages 23-49, June.
    2. Tasnim Khan & Rana Ejaz Ali Khan, 2009. "Urban Informal Sector: How Much Women Are Struggling for Family Survival," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 48(1), pages 67-95.
    3. Pushkar Maitra, 2002. "The Effect of Household Characteristics on Poverty and Living Standards in South Africa," Journal of Economic Development, Chung-Ang Unviersity, Department of Economics, vol. 27(1), pages 75-96, June.
    4. Megan Louw & Servaas van der Berg & Derek Yu, 2006. "Educational attainment and intergenerational social mobility in South Africa," Working Papers 09/2006, Stellenbosch University, Department of Economics.
    5. Garcia-Diaz Rocio, 2012. "Demand-Based Cost-of-Children Estimates and Child Poverty," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 12(1), pages 1-32, January.
    6. Dorrit Posel & Michael Rogan, 2012. "Gendered trends in poverty in the post-apartheid period, 1997--2006," Development Southern Africa, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 29(1), pages 97-113, March.
    7. Pushkar Maitra & Ranjan Ray, 2003. "Resource inflows and household composition: evidence from South African panel data," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 15(8), pages 1037-1047.
    8. Aleksandr Vashchilko, 2012. "Households' Expenditure Patterns in Belarus," BEROC Working Paper Series 20, Belarusian Economic Research and Outreach Center (BEROC).
    9. Toseef Azid & Rana Ejaz Ali Khan & Adnan M.S. Alamasi, 2010. "Labor force participation of married women in Punjab (Pakistan)," International Journal of Social Economics, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 37(8), pages 592-612, July.
    10. Michael Rogan, 2012. "Poverty and headship in post-apartheid South Africa, 1997-2008," Working Papers 288, Economic Research Southern Africa.

    More about this item


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wly:jintdv:v:12:y:2000:i:2:p:241-256. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Wiley-Blackwell Digital Licensing) or (Christopher F. Baum). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.