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Why Do Hedgers Trade So Much?

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  • Ing-Haw Cheng
  • Wei Xiong

Abstract

Futures positions of commercial hedgers in wheat, corn, soybeans, and cotton fluctuate much more than expected output. Hedgers' short positions are positively correlated with price changes. Together, these observations raise doubt about the common practice of categorically classifying trading by hedgers as hedging while classifying trading by speculators as speculation, as hedgers frequently change their futures positions over time for reasons unrelated to output fluctuations, which is arguably a form of speculation.

Suggested Citation

  • Ing-Haw Cheng & Wei Xiong, 2014. "Why Do Hedgers Trade So Much?," The Journal of Legal Studies, University of Chicago Press, vol. 43(S2), pages 183-207.
  • Handle: RePEc:ucp:jlstud:doi:10.1086/675720
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Ing-Haw Cheng & Wei Xiong, 2014. "Financialization of Commodity Markets," Annual Review of Financial Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 6(1), pages 419-441, December.
    2. Terrance Odean., 1996. "Volume, Volatility, Price and Profit When All Trader Are Above Average," Research Program in Finance Working Papers RPF-266, University of California at Berkeley.
    3. Eric Posner & E. Glen Weyl, 2013. "Benefit-Cost Analysis for Financial Regulation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 103(3), pages 393-397, May.
    4. Hirshleifer, David, 1991. "Seasonal patterns of futures hedging and the resolution of output uncertainty," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 53(2), pages 304-327, April.
    5. Milgrom, Paul & Stokey, Nancy, 1982. "Information, trade and common knowledge," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 17-27, February.
    6. Itzhak Gilboa & Larry Samuelson & David Schmeidler, 2014. "No‐Betting‐Pareto Dominance," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 82(4), pages 1405-1442, July.
    7. Alp Simsek, 2013. "Speculation and Risk Sharing with New Financial Assets," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 128(3), pages 1365-1396.
    8. Ing-Haw Cheng & Andrei Kirilenko & Wei Xiong, 2015. "Convective Risk Flows in Commodity Futures Markets," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 19(5), pages 1733-1781.
    9. René M. Stulz, 1996. "Rethinking Risk Management," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 9(3), pages 8-25, September.
    10. Rolfo, Jacques, 1980. "Optimal Hedging under Price and Quantity Uncertainty: The Case of a Cocoa Producer," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 88(1), pages 100-116, February.
    11. Jose A. Scheinkman & Wei Xiong, 2003. "Overconfidence and Speculative Bubbles," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 111(6), pages 1183-1219, December.
    12. Newey, Whitney & West, Kenneth, 2014. "A simple, positive semi-definite, heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation consistent covariance matrix," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 33(1), pages 125-132.
    13. Rampini, Adriano A. & Sufi, Amir & Viswanathan, S., 2014. "Dynamic risk management," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 111(2), pages 271-296.
    14. Smith, Clifford W. & Stulz, René M., 1985. "The Determinants of Firms' Hedging Policies," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 20(04), pages 391-405, December.
    15. Froot, Kenneth A & Scharfstein, David S & Stein, Jeremy C, 1993. " Risk Management: Coordinating Corporate Investment and Financing Policies," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(5), pages 1629-1658, December.
    16. Terrance Odean, 1998. "Volume, Volatility, Price, and Profit When All Traders Are Above Average," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(6), pages 1887-1934, December.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Bahloul, Walid & Bouri, Abdelfettah, 2016. "The impact of investor sentiment on returns and conditional volatility in U.S. futures markets," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 89-102.
    2. Eric A. Posner & E. Glen Weyl, 2014. "Benefit-Cost Paradigms in Financial Regulation," The Journal of Legal Studies, University of Chicago Press, vol. 43(S2), pages 1-34.
    3. Ing-Haw Cheng & Wei Xiong, 2014. "Financialization of Commodity Markets," Annual Review of Financial Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 6(1), pages 419-441, December.
    4. repec:eee:pacfin:v:47:y:2018:i:c:p:109-128 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. repec:zbw:espost:157806 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Turner, Peter A. & Lim, Siew Hoon, 2015. "Hedging jet fuel price risk: The case of U.S. passenger airlines," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 44, pages 54-64.
    7. Bahloul, Walid & Bouri, Abdelfettah, 2016. "Profitability of return and sentiment-based investment strategies in US futures markets," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 254-270.
    8. Qiang Ji & Walid Bahloul & Jiang-bo Geng & Rangan Gupta, 2019. "Does Trading Behaviour Converge across Commodity Markets? Evidence from the Perspective of Hedgers’ Sentiment," Working Papers 201930, University of Pretoria, Department of Economics.
    9. Martin T. Bohl & Martin Stefan & Claudia Wellenreuther, 2019. "An Introduction to ESMA’s Commitments of Traders Reports: Do Hedgers Really Hedge?," CQE Working Papers 8619, Center for Quantitative Economics (CQE), University of Muenster.

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    JEL classification:

    • G1 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets

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