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Analysing average travel-to-work distances in Northern Ireland using the 1991 census of population: The effects of locality, social composition, and religion


  • Ian Shuttleworth
  • Chris Lloyd


Shuttleworth I. G. and Lloyd C. D. (2005) Analysing average travel-to-work distances in Northern Ireland using the 1991 Census of Population: the effects of locality, social composition, and religion, Regional Studies 39 , 909-921. Travel-to-work patterns have important implications for national and international debates about employability and the causes of unemployment. Therefore, using Northern Ireland as an example, this paper explores the factors that shape commuting flows using data from the Census of Population. An analytical framework is developed that explores the use of local regression for this type of socio-economic application. The relative importance of locational and social compositional factors as influences on daily travel-to-work patterns is considered. The paper concludes by suggesting that general regression models may hide local variations in relationships and that locational factors, such as proximity to employment opportunities, can outweigh social characteristics as determinants of commuting.

Suggested Citation

  • Ian Shuttleworth & Chris Lloyd, 2005. "Analysing average travel-to-work distances in Northern Ireland using the 1991 census of population: The effects of locality, social composition, and religion," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(7), pages 909-921.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:regstd:v:39:y:2005:i:7:p:909-921
    DOI: 10.1080/00343400500289895

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Ronald W McQuaid & Colin Lindsay, 2002. "The 'employability gap': long-term unemployment and barriers to work in buoyant labour markets," Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 20(4), pages 613-628, August.
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    Cited by:

    1. Verhetsel, Ann & Vanelslander, Thierry, 2010. "What location policy can bring to sustainable commuting: an empirical study in Brussels and Flanders, Belgium," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 18(6), pages 691-701.
    2. Mercado, Ruben & Páez, Antonio, 2009. "Determinants of distance traveled with a focus on the elderly: a multilevel analysis in the Hamilton CMA, Canada," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 65-76.

    More about this item


    Local regression; Daily travel-to-work; Religion; Employment; Regression de voisinage; Trajets quotidiens pour se rendre a la zone de travail; Religion; Emploi; Ortliche Regression; Tagliche Arbeitswege; Religion; Erwerbstatigkeit; Regresion local; Desplazamientos cotidianos residencia-trabajo; Religion; Empleo; JEL classifications: C00; J60;

    JEL classification:

    • C00 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - General - - - General
    • J60 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - General


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