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The impact of the market portfolio on the valuation, incentives and optimality of executive stock options

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  • Vicky Henderson

Abstract

This paper examines the effect on valuation and incentives of allowing executives receiving options to trade on the market portfolio. We propose a continuous time utility maximization model to value stock and option compensation from the executive's perspective. The executive may invest non-option wealth in the market and riskless asset but not in the company stock itself, leaving them subject to firm-specific risk for incentive purposes. Since the executive is risk averse, this unhedgeable firm risk leads them to place less value on the options than their cost to the company. By distinguishing between these two types of risks, we are able to examine the effect of stock volatility, firm-specific risk and market risk on the value to the executive. In particular, options do not give incentive to increase total risk, but rather to increase the proportion of market relative to firm-specific risk, so executives prefer high beta companies. The paper also examines the relationship between risk and incentives, and finds firm-specific risk decreases incentives whilst market risk may decrease incentives depending on other parameters. The model supports the use of stock rather than options if the company can adjust cash pay when granting stock-based compensation.

Suggested Citation

  • Vicky Henderson, 2005. "The impact of the market portfolio on the valuation, incentives and optimality of executive stock options," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 5(1), pages 35-47.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:quantf:v:5:y:2005:i:1:p:35-47
    DOI: 10.1080/14697680500116957
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Carmona, Julio & León, Angel & Vaello-Sebastià, Antoni, 2011. "Pricing executive stock options under employment shocks," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 97-114, January.
    2. Tim Leung & Ronnie Sircar, 2009. "Accounting For Risk Aversion, Vesting, Job Termination Risk And Multiple Exercises In Valuation Of Employee Stock Options," Mathematical Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 19(1), pages 99-128.
    3. Tang, Chun-Hua, 2016. "Impacts of future compensation on the incentive effects of existing executive stock options," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 273-285.
    4. Carmona, Julio & León, Angel & Vaello-Sebastià, Antoni, 2011. "Pricing executive stock options under employment shocks," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 97-114, January.
    5. Hamza Bahaji, 2011. "Incentives from stock option grants: a behavioral approach," Post-Print halshs-00681607, HAL.
    6. Hamza Bahaji, 2011. "Incentives from stock option grants: a behavioral approach," Post-Print halshs-00681611, HAL.
    7. Carpenter, Jennifer N. & Stanton, Richard & Wallace, Nancy, 2010. "Optimal exercise of executive stock options and implications for firm cost," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 98(2), pages 315-337, November.
    8. Armstrong, Christopher S. & Vashishtha, Rahul, 2012. "Executive stock options, differential risk-taking incentives, and firm value," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 104(1), pages 70-88.
    9. Vicky Henderson & Gechun Liang, 2011. "A Multidimensional Exponential Utility Indifference Pricing Model with Applications to Counterparty Risk," Papers 1111.3856, arXiv.org, revised Sep 2015.
    10. Mónica López-Puertas Lamy, 2012. "How does Ownership Structure Influence Bank Risk? Analyzing the Role of Managerial Incentives," Working Papers 1208, Departament Empresa, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, revised Nov 2012.
    11. Johannes Gerer & Gregor Dorfleitner, 2016. "A Note On Utility Indifference Pricing," International Journal of Theoretical and Applied Finance (IJTAF), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 19(06), pages 1-17, September.
    12. Bahaji, Hamza & Casta, Jean-François, 2016. "Employee stock option-implied risk attitude under Rank-Dependent Expected Utility," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 52(PA), pages 144-154.
    13. repec:dau:papers:123456789/9550 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Sircar, Ronnie & Xiong, Wei, 2007. "A general framework for evaluating executive stock options," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 31(7), pages 2317-2349, July.
    15. Hamza Bahaji, 2011. "Employee Stock Options Incentive Effects: A Cpt-Based Model," Post-Print halshs-00681609, HAL.
    16. Zacharias Sautner & Martin Weber, 2009. "How Do Managers Behave In Stock Option Plans? Clinical Evidence From Exercise And Survey Data," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 32(2), pages 123-155.
    17. Dandan Song & Zhaojun Yang, 2014. "Utility-Based Pricing, Timing and Hedging of an American Call Option Under an Incomplete Market with Partial Information," Computational Economics, Springer;Society for Computational Economics, vol. 44(1), pages 1-26, June.
    18. Grasselli, Matheus & Henderson, Vicky, 2009. "Risk aversion and block exercise of executive stock options," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 109-127, January.
    19. Hamza Bahaji, 2011. "Employee Stock Options Incentive Effects: A Cpt-Based Model," Working Papers halshs-00618477, HAL.
    20. Tung-Hsiao Yang & Don M. Chance, 2014. "The Price-Taker Effect On The Valuation Of Executive Stock Options," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 37(1), pages 27-54, February.
    21. repec:dau:papers:123456789/13098 is not listed on IDEAS
    22. Hodder, James E. & Jackwerth, Jens Carsten, 2011. "Managerial responses to incentives: Control of firm risk, derivative pricing implications, and outside wealth management," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(6), pages 1507-1518, June.
    23. Tang, Chun-Hua, 2012. "Revisiting the incentive effects of executive stock options," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 564-574.
    24. repec:bla:stratm:v:38:y:2017:i:11:p:2168-2188 is not listed on IDEAS

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