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The School Governance Environment in Uttar Pradesh, India: Implications for Teacher Accountability and Effort


  • Geeta Kingdon
  • Mohd. Muzammil


The school governance environment is an important determinant of schooling quality and thus of development. This article explores how school governance is influenced by teacher unions and teacher politicians by presenting evidence on the political penetration of teachers, the activities of teacher unions and the stances of teachers' organisations on various decentralisation and accountability reform proposals over time. It asks how student achievement varies with teachers' union membership and political connections. Finding that students taught by unionised or politically connected teachers have significantly lower scores, it asks to what extent this negative relationship works via such teachers applying lower effort.

Suggested Citation

  • Geeta Kingdon & Mohd. Muzammil, 2013. "The School Governance Environment in Uttar Pradesh, India: Implications for Teacher Accountability and Effort," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 49(2), pages 251-269, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:jdevst:v:49:y:2013:i:2:p:251-269
    DOI: 10.1080/00220388.2012.700397

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Nazmul Chaudhury & Jeffrey Hammer & Michael Kremer & Karthik Muralidharan & F. Halsey Rogers, 2006. "Missing in Action: Teacher and Health Worker Absence in Developing Countries," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 20(1), pages 91-116, Winter.
    2. Shahrukh Rafi Khan & David Kiefer, 2007. "Educational Production Functions for Rural Pakistan: A Comparative Institutional Analysis," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(3), pages 327-342.
    3. G. M. Arif & Najam Us Saqib, 2003. "Production of Cognitive and Life Skills in Public, Private, and NGO Schools in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 42(1), pages 1-28.
    4. Niaz Asadullah, Mohammad & Chaudhury, Nazmul & Dar, Amit, 2007. "Student achievement conditioned upon school selection: Religious and secular secondary school quality in Bangladesh," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 26(6), pages 648-659, December.
    5. Pataporn Sukontamarn, 2005. "The Entry of NGO Schools and Girls’ Educational Outcomes in Bangladesh," STICERD - Political Economy and Public Policy Paper Series 10, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, LSE.
    6. Nazmul Chaudhury & Shantayanan Devarajan, 2006. "Human Development and Service Delivery in Asia," Development Policy Review, Overseas Development Institute, vol. 24(s1), pages 81-97, August.
    7. Anna Fruttero & Varun Gauri, 2005. "The Strategic Choices of NGOs: Location Decisions in Rural Bangladesh," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(5), pages 759-787.
    8. Sukontamarn, Pataporn, 2005. "The entry of NGO schools and girls’ educational outcomes in Bangladesh," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 19297, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    9. Abigail Barr & Marcel Fafchamps, 2006. "A client-community assessment of the NGO sector in Uganda," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(4), pages 611-639.
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