IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/taf/irapec/v17y2003i3p309-326.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Does the Dollar Index Really Measure Outward Orientation?

Author

Listed:
  • Turan Subasat

Abstract

This paper assesses an important attempt to measure 'trade orientation' by a World Bank economist, David Dollar. Recognising the difficulties in measuring trade openness, Dollar (1992) produced an index of outward orientation. He adjusted national price levels with factor endowments, and used the difference between actual and predicted price levels as a measure of real exchange rate distortion. Although the 'Dollar index' was produced almost ten years ago and has been subject to various criticisms, it still remains the most popular measure of trade openness. First, this paper argues that the critics have not been entirely successful in discrediting the index. It goes on to produce alternative theoretical and empirical evidence that suggests that the Dollar index has fundamental flaws, and thus has no relevance to the debate on trade orientation and should be abandoned.

Suggested Citation

  • Turan Subasat, 2003. "Does the Dollar Index Really Measure Outward Orientation?," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(3), pages 309-326.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:irapec:v:17:y:2003:i:3:p:309-326
    DOI: 10.1080/0269217032000090504
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/0269217032000090504
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1080/0269217032000090504?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Kenneth Rogoff, 1996. "The Purchasing Power Parity Puzzle," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 34(2), pages 647-668, June.
    2. Matin, Kazi M., 1992. "Openness and economic performance in sub-Saharan Africa : evidence from time-series cross-country analysis," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1025, The World Bank.
    3. Moschos, Demetrios, 1989. "Export expansion, growth and the level of economic development: An empirical analysis," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 93-102, January.
    4. Balassa, Bela, 1978. "Exports and economic growth : Further evidence," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 181-189, June.
    5. Michaely, Michael, 1977. "Exports and growth : An empirical investigation," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 4(1), pages 49-53, February.
    6. Levine, Ross & Renelt, David, 1992. "A Sensitivity Analysis of Cross-Country Growth Regressions," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(4), pages 942-963, September.
    7. Anne O. Krueger, 1978. "Foreign Trade Regimes and Economic Development: Liberalization Attempts and Consequences," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number krue78-1, January-J.
    8. Heller, Peter S. & Porter, Richard C., 1978. "Exports and growth : An empirical re-investigation," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 191-193, June.
    9. Voivodas, Constantin S., 1973. "Exports, foreign capital inflow and economic growth," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 337-349, November.
    10. Ram, Rati, 1987. "Exports and Economic Growth in Developing Countries: Evidence from Time-Series and Cross-Section Data," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 36(1), pages 51-72, October.
    11. Francisco Rodríguez & Dani Rodrik, 2001. "Trade Policy and Economic Growth: A Skeptic's Guide to the Cross-National Evidence," NBER Chapters, in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2000, Volume 15, pages 261-338, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    12. Falvey, Rod & Gemmell, Norman, 1999. "Factor endowments, nontradables prices and measures of 'openness'," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1), pages 101-122, February.
    13. Tyler, William G., 1981. "Growth and export expansion in developing countries : Some empirical evidence," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 121-130, August.
    14. Kavoussi, Rostam M., 1984. "Export expansion and economic growth : Further empirical evidence," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 241-250.
    15. Jung, Woo S. & Marshall, Peyton J., 1985. "Exports, growth and causality in developing countries," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 1-12.
    16. Robert E. Baldwin, 2000. "Trade and Growth: Still Disagreement about the Relationships," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 264, OECD Publishing.
    17. Bhagwati, Jagdish N, 1984. "Why Are Services Cheaper in the Poor Countries?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 94(374), pages 279-286, June.
    18. Krueger, Anne O, 1980. "Trade Policy as an Input to Development," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(2), pages 288-292, May.
    19. David Dollar & Aart Kraay, 2004. "Trade, Growth, and Poverty," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 114(493), pages 22-49, February.
    20. Dodaro, Santo, 1991. "Comparative advantage, trade and growth: Export-Led growth revisited," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 19(9), pages 1153-1165, September.
    21. Ram, Rati, 1985. "Exports and Economic Growth: Some Additional Evidence," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 33(2), pages 415-425, January.
    22. Feder, Gershon, 1983. "On exports and economic growth," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(1-2), pages 59-73.
    23. Michael David Bordo, 1978. "Reply," History of Political Economy, Duke University Press, vol. 10(2), pages 328-331, Summer.
    24. Limao, Nuno & Venables, Anthony J., 1999. "Infrastructure, geographical disadvantage, and transport costs," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2257, The World Bank.
    25. Fajana, Olufemi, 1979. "Trade and growth: The Nigerian experience," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 73-78, January.
    26. G. K. Helleiner, 1986. "Outward Orientation, Import Instability and African Economic Growth: an Empirical Investigation," Palgrave Macmillan Books, in: Sanjaya Lall & Frances Stewart (ed.), Theory and Reality in Development, chapter 9, pages 139-153, Palgrave Macmillan.
    27. Westphal, Larry E., 1978. "The republic of Korea's experience with export-led industrial development," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 347-382, March.
    28. Pritchett, Lant, 1996. "Measuring outward orientation in LDCs: Can it be done?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(2), pages 307-335, May.
    29. Peter Timmer, C., 1988. "The agricultural transformation," Handbook of Development Economics, in: Hollis Chenery & T.N. Srinivasan (ed.), Handbook of Development Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 8, pages 275-331, Elsevier.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Tarlok Singh, 2010. "Does International Trade Cause Economic Growth? A Survey," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 33(11), pages 1517-1564, November.
    2. Onafowora, Olugbenga A. & Owoye, Oluwole, 1998. "Can Trade Liberalization Stimulate Economic Growth in Africa?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 26(3), pages 497-506, March.
    3. van den Berg, Hendrik, 1997. "The relationship between international trade and economic growth in Mexico," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 1-21.
    4. Love, Jim & Chandra, Ramesh, 2005. "Testing export-led growth in Bangladesh in a multivarate VAR framework," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(6), pages 1155-1168, January.
    5. AKBAR Mohammad & NAQVI Zareen Fatima, 2010. "Are Exports an Engine of Growth in Pakistan?," EcoMod2003 330700004, EcoMod.
    6. Asmawi Hashim & Norimah Rambeli & Norasibah Abdul Jalil & Normala Zulkifli & Emilda Hashim & Noor Al-Huda Abdul Karim, 2019. "Does Export Led Growth Hypothesis Hold Under World Crisis Recovery Regime in Malaysia?," Research in World Economy, Research in World Economy, Sciedu Press, vol. 10(5), pages 9-19, December.
    7. Pushpa Trivedi & Narayan Chandra Pradhan, 2010. "Exports and Growth Nexus in India: An Econometric Analysis," Millennial Asia, , vol. 1(1), pages 97-121, January.
    8. Jim Love & Ramesh Chandra, 2004. "Testing Export‐Led Growth in India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka Using a Multivariate Framework," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 72(4), pages 483-496, July.
    9. Christian Dreger & Dierk Herzer, 2013. "A further examination of the export-led growth hypothesis," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 45(1), pages 39-60, August.
    10. Fadzil, Atikah & Masih, Mansur, 2017. "Does export lead growth? evidence from Japan," MPRA Paper 109290, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. Joshua J. Lewer & Hendrik Van den Berg, 2003. "How Large Is International Trade’s Effect on Economic Growth?," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(3), pages 363-396, July.
    12. Jong Park & Penelope Prime, 1997. "Export performance and growth in China: a cross-provincial analysis," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 29(10), pages 1353-1363.
    13. Alper Aslan & Ebru Topcu, 2018. "The Relationship between Export and Growth: Panel Data Evidence from Turkish Sectors," Economies, MDPI, vol. 6(2), pages 1-15, April.
    14. Hotchkiss, Julie L. & Moore, Robert E. & Rockel, Mark, 1994. "Export expansion and growth at different stages of development," MPRA Paper 9320, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    15. Xiaming Liu & Haiyan Song & Peter Romilly, 1997. "An empirical investigation of the causal relationship between openness and economic growth in China," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 29(12), pages 1679-1686.
    16. Umoh, Okon J. & Onye, Kenneth U., 2013. "The Growth Implication of Trade Liberalization in West Africa," MPRA Paper 88371, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    17. Sayef Bakari, 2017. "The Three-Way Linkages Between Export, Import And Economic Growth: New Evidence From Tunisia," Journal of Smart Economic Growth, , vol. 2(3), pages 13-53, December.
    18. Harrison, Ann E. & Rodriguez-Clare, Andres, 2009. "Trade, Foreign Investment, and Industrial Policy," MPRA Paper 15561, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    19. Zia Uddin Chowdhury Hayat & Kaliappa P. Kalirajan, 2009. "Is There a Threshold Level of Inflation for Bangladesh?," Margin: The Journal of Applied Economic Research, National Council of Applied Economic Research, vol. 3(1), pages 1-20, February.
    20. Abhijit Sharma & Theodore Panagiotidis, 2003. "An Analysis of Exports and Growth in India: Some Empirical Evidence (1971-2001)," Working Papers 2003004, The University of Sheffield, Department of Economics, revised Nov 2003.

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:taf:irapec:v:17:y:2003:i:3:p:309-326. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.tandfonline.com/CIRA20 .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Chris Longhurst (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.tandfonline.com/CIRA20 .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.