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Financial Liberalization, Multinational Banks and Credit Supply: The case of Poland

  • Christian Weller

Part of the Polish transformation process has been an opening of the domestic financial market to foreign entrants. While the number of multinational banks (MNBs) has risen from zero to 15 within six years, the ratio of bank credit to private and public enterprises relative to GDP decreased continuously after 1991. In this paper, I develop an argument as to why these two trends may be connected. Further, using monthly data provided by the weekly Polish publication Gazeta Bankowa, the National Bank of Poland, the Central Statistical Office, the BIS and the IMF, I test the hypothesis that more MNB entry may lead to a declining credit supply during the early stages of the transition process. Multivariate regression results indicate that more MNB entry results in a lower credit supply by Polish banks during the early transition phase. This result holds regardless of the measurement of international financial competition, and regardless of a bank's history, and it is only partially affected by a bank's location. More importantly, the overall impact of increased international financial competition on the credit supply of Polish banks is strong enough to lower the total credit supply in the Polish economy. Since an earlier study has found that Polish industries operate under hard budget constraints and are finance constrained during the early stages of the transition process, a reduction in the credit supply has adverse effects on business investments (Cornelli et al., 1996;Weller, 1999).

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Article provided by Taylor & Francis Journals in its journal International Review of Applied Economics.

Volume (Year): 14 (2000)
Issue (Month): 2 ()
Pages: 193-211

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Handle: RePEc:taf:irapec:v:14:y:2000:i:2:p:193-211
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  1. Cornelli, F. & Portes, R. & Schaffer, M., 1996. "The Capital Structure of Firms in Central and Eastern Europe," DELTA Working Papers 96-05, DELTA (Ecole normale supérieure).
  2. Begg, David & Portes, Richard, 1992. "Enterprise Debt and Economic Transformation: Financial Restructuring of the State Sector in Central and Eastern Europe," CEPR Discussion Papers 695, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  3. Hausman, Jerry, 2015. "Specification tests in econometrics," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 38(2), pages 112-134.
  4. Gertler, Mark, 1988. "Financial Structure and Aggregate Economic Activity: An Overview," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 20(3), pages 559-88, August.
  5. Ben Bernanke & Mark Gertler, 1987. "Financial Fragility and Economic Performance," NBER Working Papers 2318, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Corbett, Jennifer & Mayer, Colin, 1991. "Financial Reform in Eastern Europe: Progress With the Wrong Model," CEPR Discussion Papers 603, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  7. Bruce C. Greenwald & Joseph E. Stiglitz, 1990. "Macroeconomic Models with Equity and Credit Rationing," NBER Chapters, in: Asymmetric Information, Corporate Finance, and Investment, pages 15-42 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Stiglitz, Joseph E & Weiss, Andrew, 1981. "Credit Rationing in Markets with Imperfect Information," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(3), pages 393-410, June.
  9. Ursacki, Terry & Vertinsky, Ilan, 1992. "Choice of entry timing and scale by foreign banks in Japan and Korea," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 405-421, April.
  10. Christian Weller, 2001. "The Finance-Investment Link in a Transition Economy: Evidence For Poland From Panel Data," Comparative Economic Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 43(1), pages 31-52, April.
  11. Carlin, Wendy & Mayer, Colin, 1992. "Restructuring Enterprises in Eastern Europe," CEPR Discussion Papers 700, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  12. Thomas S. Mondschean & Timothy P. Opiela, 1997. "Banking reform in a transition economy: the case of Poland," Economic Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, issue Mar, pages 16-32.
  13. Brainard, Lawrence J., 1990. "Capital markets in Korea and Taiwan: Emerging opportunities for foreign banks," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 173-177.
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