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Barriers To The Diffusion Of Nanotechnology


  • Barry Bozeman
  • John Hardin
  • Albert Link


This paper provides the first empirical information about barriers related to the diffusion of nanotechnology, a general purpose technology. Our analysis is based on the findings from a state-wide survey of companies in North Carolina, USA. We find that the primary barrier is lack of access to early-stage capital, and the extent of this barrier is greater when the company contributes to the value chain for nanotechnology through R&D as opposed to through products or services. Another barrier is lack of access to university equipment and facilities, a problem greater in companies involved in nanotechnology research. From a policy perspective, our analysis suggests that state governments could act as venture capitalists to overcome market failure in the capital market, and that states could provide incentives to universities through public/private centers of excellence for sharing capital equipment and facilities with nanotechnology companies.

Suggested Citation

  • Barry Bozeman & John Hardin & Albert Link, 2008. "Barriers To The Diffusion Of Nanotechnology," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(7-8), pages 749-761.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:ecinnt:v:17:y:2008:i:7-8:p:749-761 DOI: 10.1080/10438590701785819

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. David B. Audretsch & Dennis P. Leyden & Albert N. Link, 2013. "Universities as research partners in publicly supported entrepreneurial firms," Chapters,in: Public Support of Innovation in Entrepreneurial Firms, chapter 12, pages 175-192 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    2. Dennis Leyden & Albert Link, 2013. "Knowledge spillovers, collective entrepreneurship, and economic growth: the role of universities," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 41(4), pages 797-817, December.
    3. Gruère, Guillaume & Narrod, Clare & Abbott, Linda, 2011. "Agricultural, food, and water nanotechnologies for the poor: Opportunities, constraints, and role of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research," IFPRI discussion papers 1064, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    4. David P. Leech & John T. Scott, 2017. "Nanotechnology documentary standards," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 42(1), pages 78-97, February.
    5. Audretsch, David & Link, Albert, 2017. "Embracing an Entrepreneurial Ecosystem: An Analysis of the Governance of Research Joint Ventures," UNCG Economics Working Papers 17-11, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics.
    6. Dennis Patrick Leyden, 2016. "Universities as partners in research joint ventures," Economia e Politica Industriale: Journal of Industrial and Business Economics, Springer;Associazione Amici di Economia e Politica Industriale, vol. 43(4), pages 449-462, December.
    7. repec:spr:anresc:v:59:y:2017:i:2:d:10.1007_s00168-017-0843-4 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. David B. Audretsch & Dennis P. Leyden & Albert N. Link, 2013. "Regional Appropriation of University-Based Knowledge and Technology for Economic Development," Economic Development Quarterly, , vol. 27(1), pages 56-61, February.
    9. Leyden, Dennis & Link, Albert N., 2012. "Knowledge Spillovers, Collective Entrepreneurship, & Economic Growth: The Role of Universities," UNCG Economics Working Papers 12-8, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics.
    10. Link, Al & Wessner, Charles, 2010. "Universities as Research Partners: Entrepreneurial Explorations and Exploitations," UNCG Economics Working Papers 10-12, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics.


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