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How trade and foreign investment affect the growth of a small but not so open economy: Australia?


  • Krishna Iyer
  • Alicia Rambaldi
  • Kam Ki Tang


This article analyses the impact of trade and foreign investment on a small but not so open economy, Australia, whose growth rate outpaced the majority of the OECD countries in the last decade. We model five channels of outward orientation: exports, imports, foreign direct investment, foreign portfolio investment and other foreign investment. A cointegrated vector autoregressive model, complemented by a robust Granger noncausality test, is specified to identify permanent channels of outward orientation. Imports and direct investment are found to have a growth effect in the long run. The effect of imports is almost three times that of direct investment.

Suggested Citation

  • Krishna Iyer & Alicia Rambaldi & Kam Ki Tang, 2009. "How trade and foreign investment affect the growth of a small but not so open economy: Australia?," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(12), pages 1525-1532.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:applec:v:41:y:2009:i:12:p:1525-1532
    DOI: 10.1080/00036840601032177

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Sam Peltzman, 1992. "Voters as Fiscal Conservatives," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 107(2), pages 327-361.
    2. Stine, William F., 2003. "The Effect of Personal Property Tax Repeal on Pennsylvania’s Real Estate Tax Growth and Stability," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 56(1), pages 45-60, March.
    3. John H. Beck & Randall W. Bennett, 2003. "Taxation, License Fees, and New Car Registrations," Public Finance Review, , vol. 31(5), pages 487-509, September.
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    Cited by:

    1. Mah Jai S., 2011. "Export Promotion Policies, Export Composition and Economic Development of Korea," The Law and Development Review, De Gruyter, vol. 4(2), pages 3-27, February.
    2. Kishor Sharma & Pemasiri J. Gunawardana, 2012. "The role of price and nonprice factors in predicting Australia's trade performance," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 44(21), pages 2679-2686, July.
    3. Turnbull, Christopher & Sun, Sizhong & Anwar, Sajid, 2016. "Trade liberalisation, inward FDI and productivity within Australia’s manufacturing sector," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 41-51.

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