IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Private costs and the rate of return to primary education


  • Patrick McEwan


The paper suggests that typical estimates of returns to primary education are over-estimated, because import costs to individuals are excluded. In calculations with Honduran data, private returns are found to drop significantly when private costs are included. It is suggested that lower private rates of return are consistent with low educational attainment in many developing countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Patrick McEwan, 1999. "Private costs and the rate of return to primary education," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 6(11), pages 759-760.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:apeclt:v:6:y:1999:i:11:p:759-760 DOI: 10.1080/135048599352358

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Barbara J. Spencer & James A. Brander, 1983. "International R & D Rivalry and Industrial Strategy," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 50(4), pages 707-722.
    2. Fagerberg, Jan, 1988. "International Competitiveness," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 98(391), pages 355-374, June.
    3. Krugman, Paul, 1983. "New Theories of Trade among Industrial Countries," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 73(2), pages 343-347, May.
    4. Glaeser, Edward L & Hedi D. Kallal & Jose A. Scheinkman & Andrei Shleifer, 1992. "Growth in Cities," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 100(6), pages 1126-1152, December.
      • Edward L. Glaeser & Hedi D. Kallal & Jose A. Scheinkman & Andrei Shleifer, 1991. "Growth in Cities," NBER Working Papers 3787, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
      • Glaeser, Edward Ludwig & Kallal, Hedi D. & Scheinkman, Jose A. & Shleifer, Andrei, 1992. "Growth in Cities," Scholarly Articles 3451309, Harvard University Department of Economics.
    5. Bart Verspagen & Katharine Wakelin, 1997. "Trade and Technology from a Schumpeterian Perspective," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(2), pages 181-194.
    6. Krugman, Paul, 1989. "Differences in income elasticities and trends in real exchange rates," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 1031-1046, May.
    7. M. Landesmann & M. Pfaffermayr, 1997. "Technological competition and trade performance," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 29(2), pages 179-196.
    8. Conlon, R M, 1992. "Determinants of Manufacturing Industry Exports: A Comparative Study of Australia, Republic of Korea, Singapore and Taiwan," Australian Economic Papers, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 31(59), pages 427-442, December.
    9. Antoine Magnier & Joël Toujas-Bernate, 1994. "Technology and trade: Empirical evidences for the major five industrialized countries," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 130(3), pages 494-520, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Roland Craigwell & Danielle Bynoe & Shane Lowe, 2012. "The effectiveness of government expenditure on education and health care in the Caribbean," International Journal of Development Issues, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 11(1), pages 4-18, April.
    2. Sunwoong Kim & Ju-Ho Lee, 2010. "Private Tutoring and Demand for Education in South Korea," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 58(2), pages 259-296, January.
    3. Momota, Akira, 2009. "A population-macroeconomic growth model for currently developing countries," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 431-453, February.
    4. Ngambouk Vitalis Pemunta & Eno-Akpa Rene Nkongho, 2014. "The Fragility of the Liberal Peace Export to South Sudan: Formal Education Access as a Basis of a Liberal Peace Project," Journal of Human Security, Librello publishing house, vol. 10(1), pages 59-75.
    5. Polcyn, Jan, 2017. "Edukacja jako dobro publiczne - próba kwantyfikacji
      [Education as a public good – an attempt at quantification]
      ," MPRA Paper 76606, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2017.

    More about this item


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:taf:apeclt:v:6:y:1999:i:11:p:759-760. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Chris Longhurst). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.