IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/spr/minecn/v33y2020i1d10.1007_s13563-019-00199-y.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Leaning against the wind: low-price benchmarks for acting anticyclically in the metal markets

Author

Listed:
  • Peter Buchholz

    (German Mineral Resources Agency (DERA) at the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR))

  • Friedrich-W. Wellmer

    (Neue Sachlichkeit 32)

  • Dennis Bastian

    (German Mineral Resources Agency (DERA) at the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR))

  • Maren Liedtke

    (German Mineral Resources Agency (DERA) at the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR))

Abstract

Real prices for metals seem to have developed at a constant price level over a long period of time, up to 100 years. Based on real prices for 28 metals, using the US Producer Price Index as a deflator, we have defined long-term and short-term low-price benchmarks. The results show that real prices which developed in cycles or reacted to shocks normally returned to a certain floor price, defined as the long-term low-price benchmark in this study. Using long-term low-price benchmarks as a price signal is a useful tool for investors and buyers to act anticyclically between cycles or shocks, either to secure long-term offtake agreements or to farm into new mining assets at a low price. A combined analysis with average real total cash cost data for 11 mineral raw materials supports the low-price benchmark approach and leads to a discussion whether the lessons of the past hold true for the future. We propose that these learning effects still take place and, in consequence, the long-term real price benchmarks may be extrapolated into the next decade. However, it is possible that the cost pressure to retain or obtain the social licence to operate increases to such a degree that technical rationalization cannot keep up with the cost increases. Consequently, the operating costs at mines and the ratio of the established long-term low-price benchmark to the total cash costs are important aspects to monitor.

Suggested Citation

  • Peter Buchholz & Friedrich-W. Wellmer & Dennis Bastian & Maren Liedtke, 2020. "Leaning against the wind: low-price benchmarks for acting anticyclically in the metal markets," Mineral Economics, Springer;Raw Materials Group (RMG);Luleå University of Technology, vol. 33(1), pages 81-100, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:minecn:v:33:y:2020:i:1:d:10.1007_s13563-019-00199-y
    DOI: 10.1007/s13563-019-00199-y
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13563-019-00199-y
    File Function: Abstract
    Download Restriction: Access to the full text of the articles in this series is restricted.

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1007/s13563-019-00199-y?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Rossen, Anja, 2015. "What are metal prices like? Co-movement, price cycles and long-run trends," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 255-276.
    2. Svedberg, Peter & Tilton, John E., 2006. "The real, real price of nonrenewable resources: copper 1870-2000," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 501-519, March.
    3. Lutz Kilian, 2009. "Not All Oil Price Shocks Are Alike: Disentangling Demand and Supply Shocks in the Crude Oil Market," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 99(3), pages 1053-1069, June.
    4. Prno, Jason, 2013. "An analysis of factors leading to the establishment of a social licence to operate in the mining industry," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(4), pages 577-590.
    5. Cuddington, John T, 2010. "Long-term trends in the Real real prices of primary commodities: Inflation bias and the Prebisch-Singer hypothesis," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 72-76, June.
    6. Roberts, Mark C., 2009. "Duration and characteristics of metal price cycles," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 87-102, September.
    7. He, Kaijian & Lu, Xingjing & Zou, Yingchao & Keung Lai, Kin, 2015. "Forecasting metal prices with a curvelet based multiscale methodology," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 144-150.
    8. Chen, Mei-Hsiu, 2010. "Understanding world metals prices--Returns, volatility and diversification," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 127-140, September.
    9. Svedberg, Peter & Tilton, John E., 2011. "Long-term trends in the Real real prices of primary commodities: Inflation bias and the Prebisch-Singer hypothesis," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 91-93, March.
    10. Fernandez, Viviana, 2012. "Trends in real commodity prices: How real is real?," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 30-47.
    11. Jerrett, Daniel & Cuddington, John T., 2008. "Broadening the statistical search for metal price super cycles to steel and related metals," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(4), pages 188-195, December.
    12. Gregor Schwerhoff & Martin Stuermer, 2015. "Non-renewable resources, extraction technology, and endogenous growth," Working Papers 1506, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Peter Buchholz & Friedrich-W. Wellmer & Dennis Bastian & Maren Liedtke, 0. "Leaning against the wind: low-price benchmarks for acting anticyclically in the metal markets," Mineral Economics, Springer;Raw Materials Group (RMG);Luleå University of Technology, vol. 0, pages 1-20.
    2. Tapia, Carlos & Coulton, Jeff & Saydam, Serkan, 2020. "Using entropy to assess dynamic behaviour of long-term copper price," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 66(C).
    3. C. A. Tapia Cortez & J. Coulton & C. Sammut & S. Saydam, 2018. "Determining the chaotic behaviour of copper prices in the long-term using annual price data," Palgrave Communications, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 4(1), pages 1-13, December.
    4. Tapia Cortez, Carlos A. & Hitch, Michael & Sammut, Claude & Coulton, Jeff & Shishko, Robert & Saydam, Serkan, 2018. "Determining the embedding parameters governing long-term dynamics of copper prices," Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, Elsevier, vol. 111(C), pages 186-197.
    5. Wen, Fenghua & Zhao, Cong & Hu, Chunyan, 2019. "Time-varying effects of international copper price shocks on China's producer price index," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 507-514.
    6. Ehrlich, Lars G., 2018. "What drives nickel prices: A structural VAR approach," HWWI Research Papers 186, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWI).
    7. Vasyl Golosnoy & Anja Rossen, 2018. "Modeling dynamics of metal price series via state space approach with two common factors," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 54(4), pages 1477-1501, June.
    8. Fernandez, Viviana, 2014. "Linear and non-linear causality between price indices and commodity prices," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 40-51.
    9. Fernandez, Viviana, 2015. "Commodity price excess co-movement from a historical perspective: 1900–2010," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 698-710.
    10. Marañon, Matias & Kumral, Mustafa, 2019. "Kondratiev long cycles in metal commodity prices," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 21-28.
    11. Rubaszek, Michał & Karolak, Zuzanna & Kwas, Marek, 2020. "Mean-reversion, non-linearities and the dynamics of industrial metal prices. A forecasting perspective," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 65(C).
    12. David Matesanz & Benno Torgler & Germán Dabat & Guillermo J. Ortega, 2014. "Co-movements in commodity prices: a note based on network analysis," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 45(S1), pages 13-21, November.
    13. Mikael Collan & Jyrki Savolainen & Pasi Luukka, 2017. "Investigating the effect of price process selection on the value of a metal mining asset portfolio," Mineral Economics, Springer;Raw Materials Group (RMG);Luleå University of Technology, vol. 30(2), pages 107-115, July.
    14. Pincheira Brown, Pablo & Hardy, Nicolás, 2019. "Forecasting base metal prices with the Chilean exchange rate," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 256-281.
    15. Chen, Yanhui & He, Kaijian & Zhang, Chuan, 2016. "A novel grey wave forecasting method for predicting metal prices," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 323-331.
    16. He, Kaijian & Liu, Youjin & Yu, Lean & Lai, Kin Keung, 2016. "Multiscale dependence analysis and portfolio risk modeling for precious metal markets," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 224-233.
    17. József Popp & Judit Oláh & Mária Farkas Fekete & Zoltán Lakner & Domicián Máté, 2018. "The Relationship Between Prices of Various Metals, Oil and Scarcity," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(9), pages 1-19, September.
    18. Savolainen, Jyrki, 2016. "Real options in metal mining project valuation: Review of literature," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 49-65.
    19. Su, Chi-Wei & Wang, Xiao-Qing & Zhu, Haotian & Tao, Ran & Moldovan, Nicoleta-Claudia & Lobonţ, Oana-Ramona, 2020. "Testing for multiple bubbles in the copper price: Periodically collapsing behavior," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 65(C).
    20. Pincheira, Pablo & Hardy, Nicolas, 2018. "Forecasting Base Metal Prices with Commodity Currencies," MPRA Paper 83564, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:spr:minecn:v:33:y:2020:i:1:d:10.1007_s13563-019-00199-y. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.springer.com .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Sonal Shukla or Springer Nature Abstracting and Indexing (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.springer.com .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.