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Awareness-dependent subjective expected utility

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  • Burkhard Schipper

Abstract

We develop awareness-dependent subjective expected utility by taking unawareness structures introduced in Heifetz et al. (J Econ Theory 130:78–94, 2006 ; Games Econ Behav 62:304–324, 2008 ; Unawareness, beliefs, and speculative trade. University of California, Davis, 2011a ) as primitives in the Anscombe–Aumann approach to subjective expected utility. We observe that a decision maker is unaware of an event if and only if her choices reveal that the event is “null” and the negation of the event is “null”. Moreover, we characterize “impersonal” expected utility that is behaviorally indistinguishable from awareness-dependent subject expected utility and assigns probability zero to some subsets of states that are not necessarily events. We discuss in what sense probability zero can model unawareness. Copyright Springer-Verlag 2013

Suggested Citation

  • Burkhard Schipper, 2013. "Awareness-dependent subjective expected utility," International Journal of Game Theory, Springer;Game Theory Society, vol. 42(3), pages 725-753, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:jogath:v:42:y:2013:i:3:p:725-753
    DOI: 10.1007/s00182-012-0321-2
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Heifetz, Aviad & Meier, Martin & Schipper, Burkhard C., 2013. "Unawareness, beliefs, and speculative trade," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 77(1), pages 100-121.
    2. Blume, Lawrence & Easley, David & Halpern, Joseph Y., 2021. "Constructive decision theory," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 196(C).
    3. Simon Grant & John Quiggin, 2013. "Inductive reasoning about unawareness," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 54(3), pages 717-755, November.
    4. Heifetz, Aviad & Meier, Martin & Schipper, Burkhard C., 2008. "A canonical model for interactive unawareness," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 62(1), pages 304-324, January.
    5. Schipper, Burkhard C, 2011. "Preference-Based Unawareness," MPRA Paper 30221, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Kim-Sau Chung & Oliver Board, 2007. "Object-Based Unawareness," Working Papers 2007-2, University of Minnesota, Department of Economics, revised 24 Aug 2007.
    7. Martin Meier & Burkhard C. Schipper, 2014. "Speculative trade under unawareness: the infinite case," Economic Theory Bulletin, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 2(2), pages 147-160, October.
    8. Li, Jing, 2009. "Information structures with unawareness," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 144(3), pages 977-993, May.
    9. Burkhard Schipper, 2011. "Preference-Dependent Unawareness," Working Papers 269, University of California, Davis, Department of Economics.
    10. Spyros Galanis, 2011. "Syntactic foundations for unawareness of theorems," Theory and Decision, Springer, vol. 71(4), pages 593-614, October.
    11. Burkhard C. Schipper & Oliver Board & Kim-Sau Chung, 2009. "Two Models of Unawareness: Comparing the object-based and subjective-state-space approaches," Working Papers 93, University of California, Davis, Department of Economics.
    12. Halpern, Joseph Y. & Rego, Leandro Chaves, 2008. "Interactive unawareness revisited," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 62(1), pages 232-262, January.
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    15. Heifetz, Aviad & Meier, Martin & Schipper, Burkhard C., 2006. "Interactive unawareness," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 130(1), pages 78-94, September.
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    20. Halpern, Joseph Y., 2001. "Alternative Semantics for Unawareness," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 321-339, November.
    21. Heifetz, Aviad & Meier, Martin & Schipper, Burkhard C., 2013. "Unawareness, beliefs, and speculative trade," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 77(1), pages 100-121.
    22. Eddie Dekel & Barton L. Lipman & Aldo Rustichini, 1998. "Standard State-Space Models Preclude Unawareness," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 66(1), pages 159-174, January.
    23. Burkhard Schipper, 2011. "Preference-Dependent Unawareness," Working Papers 116, University of California, Davis, Department of Economics.
    24. Galanis, Spyros, 2007. "Unawareness of theorems," Discussion Paper Series In Economics And Econometrics 51816, Economics Division, School of Social Sciences, University of Southampton.
    25. David S. Ahn & Haluk Ergin, 2010. "Framing Contingencies," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 78(2), pages 655-695, March.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Wenjun Ma & Burkhard C. Schipper, 2017. "Does exposure to unawareness affect risk preferences? A preliminary result," Theory and Decision, Springer, vol. 83(2), pages 245-257, August.
    2. O’Callaghan, Patrick H., 2018. "Axioms for measuring utility on partial mixture sets," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 76-86.
    3. Edi Karni & Marie-Louise Vier?, 2013. ""Reverse Bayesianism": A Choice-Based Theory of Growing Awareness," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 103(7), pages 2790-2810, December.
    4. Yasuo Sasaki, 2016. "An Equivalence Result on the Reduction of Games with Unawareness," International Game Theory Review (IGTR), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 18(03), pages 1-27, September.
    5. Martin Meier & Burkhard Schipper, 2014. "Bayesian games with unawareness and unawareness perfection," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 56(2), pages 219-249, June.
    6. Yasuo Sasaki, 2017. "Generalized Nash equilibrium with stable belief hierarchies in static games with unawareness," Annals of Operations Research, Springer, vol. 256(2), pages 271-284, September.
    7. Dominiak, Adam & Tserenjigmid, Gerelt, 2018. "Belief consistency and invariant risk preferences," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 79(C), pages 157-162.
    8. Vierø, Marie-Louise, 2021. "An intertemporal model of growing awareness," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 197(C).
    9. Auster, Sarah, 2013. "Asymmetric awareness and moral hazard," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 82(C), pages 503-521.
    10. Piermont, Evan, 2017. "Introspective unawareness and observable choice," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 106(C), pages 134-152.
    11. Karni, Edi & Vierø, Marie-Louise, 2017. "Awareness of unawareness: A theory of decision making in the face of ignorance," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 168(C), pages 301-328.
    12. Kochov, Asen, 2018. "A behavioral definition of unforeseen contingencies," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 175(C), pages 265-290.
    13. Christoph K. Becker & Tigran Melkonyan & Eugenio Proto & Andis Sofianos & Stefan T. Trautmann, 2020. "Reverse Bayesianism: Revising Beliefs in Light of Unforeseen Events," CESifo Working Paper Series 8662, CESifo.
    14. Ekaterina Svetlova & Henk van Elst, 2014. "Decision-theoretic approaches to non-knowledge in economics," Papers 1407.0787, arXiv.org.
    15. Konrad Grabiszewski, 2015. "Rationalizing epistemic bounded rationality," Theory and Decision, Springer, vol. 78(4), pages 629-637, April.
    16. Grabiszewski Konrad, 2016. "On the Rejectability of the Subjective Expected Utility Theory," The B.E. Journal of Theoretical Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 16(2), pages 437-454, June.
    17. Adam Dominiak & Ani Guerdjikova, 2021. "Pessimism and optimism towards new discoveries," Theory and Decision, Springer, vol. 90(3), pages 321-370, May.
    18. Kevin Bryan & Michael Ryall & Burkhard C. Schipper, 2019. "Value-Capture in the Face of Known and Unknown Unknowns," Working Papers 333, University of California, Davis, Department of Economics.
    19. Dietrich, Franz, 2018. "Savage's theorem under changing awareness," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 176(C), pages 1-54.
    20. Marcus Pivato, 2020. "Subjective expected utility with a spectral state space," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 69(2), pages 249-313, March.
    21. O'Callaghan, Patrick, 2017. "Axioms for Measuring without mixing apples and Oranges," MPRA Paper 81196, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Unawareness; Awareness; Unforeseen contingencies; Null; Probability zero; Subjective expected utility; Anscombe–Aumann; Small worlds; C70; C72; D03; D80; D81;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C70 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Game Theory and Bargaining Theory - - - General
    • C72 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Game Theory and Bargaining Theory - - - Noncooperative Games
    • D03 - Microeconomics - - General - - - Behavioral Microeconomics: Underlying Principles
    • D80 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - General
    • D81 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Criteria for Decision-Making under Risk and Uncertainty

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