IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Balancing Digital-By-Default with Inclusion: A Study of the Factors Influencing E-Inclusion in the UK


  • Ahlam Al-Muwil

    () (Brunel University London)

  • Vishanth Weerakkody

    () (University of Bradford)

  • Ramzi El-haddadeh

    () (Qatar University)

  • Yogesh Dwivedi

    () (Swansea University)


Digital inclusion research has been critically important in drawing an understanding of how policies, society, organisations, and information technologies can all come together within a national environment that aspires to be a digital nation. This research aims to examine the factors influencing e-Inclusion in the UK within a digital-by-default policy for government services. This study is pursued through combining the Decomposed Theory of Planned Behaviour (DTPB) with Use and Gratification Theory (U&G) and conducting a self-administered survey targeting 510 Internet users to study the level of citizens engagement with e-government services in the UK. By incorporating gratification, trust, risk and external factors (i.e. self-efficacy, accessibility, availability, affordability) within DTPB, the proposed model of e-Inclusion used in the paper demonstrates a considerable explanatory and predictive power and offers a frame of reference to study the acceptance and usage of e-government within a national context where nearly all government transactions are digital-by-default. The findings revealed six dimensions as key inhibitors for e-Inclusion, namely: demographic, economic, social, cultural, political, and infrastructural.

Suggested Citation

  • Ahlam Al-Muwil & Vishanth Weerakkody & Ramzi El-haddadeh & Yogesh Dwivedi, 2019. "Balancing Digital-By-Default with Inclusion: A Study of the Factors Influencing E-Inclusion in the UK," Information Systems Frontiers, Springer, vol. 21(3), pages 635-659, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:infosf:v:21:y:2019:i:3:d:10.1007_s10796-019-09914-0
    DOI: 10.1007/s10796-019-09914-0

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: Abstract
    Download Restriction: Access to the full text of the articles in this series is restricted.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Lynne, Gary D. & Franklin Casey, C. & Hodges, Alan & Rahmani, Mohammed, 1995. "Conservation technology adoption decisions and the theory of planned behavior," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 581-598, December.
    2. Kieran Mathieson, 1991. "Predicting User Intentions: Comparing the Technology Acceptance Model with the Theory of Planned Behavior," Information Systems Research, INFORMS, vol. 2(3), pages 173-191, September.
    3. Eighmey, John & McCord, Lola, 1998. "Adding Value in the Information Age: Uses and Gratifications of Sites on the World Wide Web," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 41(3), pages 187-194, March.
    4. J. J. Po-An Hsieh & Arun Rai & Mark Keil, 2011. "Addressing Digital Inequality for the Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Through Government Initiatives: Forms of Capital That Affect ICT Utilization," Information Systems Research, INFORMS, vol. 22(2), pages 233-253, June.
    5. Fred D. Davis & Richard P. Bagozzi & Paul R. Warshaw, 1989. "User Acceptance of Computer Technology: A Comparison of Two Theoretical Models," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 35(8), pages 982-1003, August.
    6. Thomas F. Stafford & Marla R. Stafford, 2001. "Identifying Motivations for the Use of Commercial Web Sites," Information Resources Management Journal (IRMJ), IGI Global, vol. 14(1), pages 22-30, January.
    7. Ira M. Wasserman & Marie Richmond‐Abbott, 2005. "Gender and the Internet: Causes of Variation in Access, Level, and Scope of Use," Social Science Quarterly, Southwestern Social Science Association, vol. 86(1), pages 252-270, March.
    8. Frederico Cruz-Jesus & Tiago Oliveira & Fernando Bacao & Zahir Irani, 2017. "Assessing the pattern between economic and digital development of countries," Information Systems Frontiers, Springer, vol. 19(4), pages 835-854, August.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Arpan Kumar Kar & Vigneswara Ilavarasan & M. P. Gupta & Marijn Janssen & Ravi Kothari, 2019. "Moving beyond Smart Cities: Digital Nations for Social Innovation & Sustainability," Information Systems Frontiers, Springer, vol. 21(3), pages 495-501, June.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:spr:infosf:v:21:y:2019:i:3:d:10.1007_s10796-019-09914-0. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sonal Shukla) or (Springer Nature Abstracting and Indexing). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.