IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Zero-Coupon, Forward, and Par Yield Curves for the Nigerian Bond Market


  • Victor Curtis Lartey
  • Yao Li
  • Hannah Darkoa Lartey
  • Eric Kofi Boadi


The Nigerian bond market is currently one of the most liquid in sub-Saharan Africa. Many African countries regard it as a model from which to learn and based on which to develop their respective bond markets. The developments achieved in the Nigerian bond market are of particular interest to both investors and fixed income analysts—both domestic and international. One of the important tools required for fixed income analysis, pricing, and trading is the yield curve. To the best of our knowledge, even though the Nigerian bond market has a secondary market yield curve, the yield curve is a yield-to-maturity curve, and not zero-coupon yield curve. The purpose of this study is to model the zero-coupon, par, and forward yield curves for the Nigerian bond market. We use various methods such as the piecewise cubic Hermite method, the piecewise cubic spline method (with not-a-knot end condition), the Nelson–Siegel–Svensson method, and the variable roughness penalty method. Data are obtained from the FMDQ OTC website. The results show that the piecewise cubic Hermite method is very suitable for producing the Nigerian par and zero-coupon yield curves. Our best recommended method for producing the Nigerian zero-coupon yield curve is therefore the piecewise cubic Hermite method, followed by the Nelson–Siegel–Svensson method. For the forward yield curve, the results show that the best method is the Nelson–Siegel–Svensson method, followed by the variable roughness penalty method.

Suggested Citation

  • Victor Curtis Lartey & Yao Li & Hannah Darkoa Lartey & Eric Kofi Boadi, 2019. "Zero-Coupon, Forward, and Par Yield Curves for the Nigerian Bond Market," SAGE Open, , vol. 9(4), pages 21582440198, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:sae:sagope:v:9:y:2019:i:4:p:2158244019885144
    DOI: 10.1177/2158244019885144

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL:
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. John C. Cox & Jonathan E. Ingersoll Jr. & Stephen A. Ross, 2005. "A Theory Of The Term Structure Of Interest Rates," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Sudipto Bhattacharya & George M Constantinides (ed.), Theory Of Valuation, chapter 5, pages 129-164, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    2. Oseni O. Isiaq & Adesoye A. Bolaji, 2016. "Fiscal Policy and Term Structure of Interest Rate in Nigeria," Acta Universitatis Danubius. OEconomica, Danubius University of Galati, issue 12(2), pages 70-83, April.
    3. Bank for International Settlements, 2005. "Zero-coupon yield curves: technical documentation," BIS Papers, Bank for International Settlements, number 25.
    4. Svensson, Lars E O, 1994. "Estimating and Interpreting Forward Interest Rates: Sweden 1992-4," CEPR Discussion Papers 1051, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    5. Han, Xuli, 2015. "Shape-preserving piecewise rational interpolant with quartic numerator and quadratic denominator," Applied Mathematics and Computation, Elsevier, vol. 251(C), pages 258-274.
    6. Svensson, L.E.O., 1994. "Estimating and Interpreting Foreward Interest Rates: Sweden 1992-1994," Papers 579, Stockholm - International Economic Studies.
    7. Nelson, Charles R & Siegel, Andrew F, 1987. "Parsimonious Modeling of Yield Curves," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 60(4), pages 473-489, October.
    8. David Jamieson Bolder, 2015. "Fixed-Income Portfolio Analytics," Springer Books, Springer, edition 127, number 978-3-319-12667-8, December.
    9. AfDB AfDB, . "2010 African Fixed Income Guidebook," African Fixed Income Guidebook, African Development Bank, number 48 edited by Sodji Agossou Francis Kohoue.
    10. repec:dug:journl:y:2016:i:2:p:70-83 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Victor Curtis Lartey & Yao Li, 2018. "Zero-Coupon and Forward Yield Curves for Government of Ghana Bonds," SAGE Open, , vol. 8(3), pages 21582440188, September.
    12. Bank for International Settlements, 2002. "The development of bond markets in emerging economies," BIS Papers, Bank for International Settlements, number 11.
    13. Mark Fisher & Douglas Nychka & David Zervos, 1995. "Fitting the term structure of interest rates with smoothing splines," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 95-1, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    14. Daniel F. Waggoner, 1997. "Spline methods for extracting interest rate curves from coupon bond prices," FRB Atlanta Working Paper 97-10, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
    15. M S Mohanty, 2002. "Improving liquidity in government bond markets: what can be done?," BIS Papers chapters, in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), The development of bond markets in emerging economies, volume 11, pages 49-80, Bank for International Settlements.
    16. David Bolder & David Stréliski, 1999. "Yield Curve Modelling at the Bank of Canada," Technical Reports 84, Bank of Canada.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Victor Curtis Lartey & Yao Li, 2018. "Zero-Coupon and Forward Yield Curves for Government of Ghana Bonds," SAGE Open, , vol. 8(3), pages 21582440188, September.
    2. Marcello Pericoli, 2014. "Real Term Structure and Inflation Compensation in the Euro Area," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 10(1), pages 1-42, March.
    3. Monique Reid, 2009. "Isolating A Measure Of Inflation Expectations For The South African Financial Market Using Forward Interest Rates," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 77(3), pages 399-413, September.
    4. Gauthier, Geneviève & Simonato, Jean-Guy, 2012. "Linearized Nelson–Siegel and Svensson models for the estimation of spot interest rates," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 219(2), pages 442-451.
    5. Shaw, Frances & Murphy, Finbarr & O’Brien, Fergal, 2014. "The forecasting efficiency of the dynamic Nelson Siegel model on credit default swaps," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 348-368.
    6. Rafael Barros de Rezende, 2011. "Giving Flexibility to the Nelson-Siegel Class of Term Structure Models," Brazilian Review of Finance, Brazilian Society of Finance, vol. 9(1), pages 27-49.
    7. Vadim Kaushanskiy & Victor Lapshin, 2016. "A nonparametric method for term structure fitting with automatic smoothing," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 48(58), pages 5654-5666, December.
    8. Ganchev, Alexander, 2009. "Modeling the yield curve of spot interest rates under the conditions in Bulgaria," MPRA Paper 70048, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Yallup, Peter J., 2012. "Models of the yield curve and the curvature of the implied forward rate function," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 121-135.
    10. Lucélia Vaz & Rodrigo Raad, 2021. "Functional data analysis for brazilian term structure of interest rate," Textos para Discussão Cedeplar-UFMG 638, Cedeplar, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais.
    11. repec:jss:jstsof:36:i01 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Faria, Adriano & Almeida, Caio, 2018. "A hybrid spline-based parametric model for the yield curve," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 86(C), pages 72-94.
    13. Kanjilal, Kakali, 2013. "Factors causing movements of yield curve in India," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 739-751.
    14. Emma Berenguer-Carceles & Ricardo Gimeno & Juan M. Nave, 2012. "Estimation of the Term Structure of Interest Rates: Methodology and Applications," Working Papers 12.06, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Department of Financial Economics and Accounting (former Department of Business Administration).
    15. Julián Andrada-Félix & Adrian Fernandez-Perez & Fernando Fernández-Rodríguez, 2015. "Fixed income strategies based on the prediction of parameters in the NS model for the Spanish public debt market," SERIEs: Journal of the Spanish Economic Association, Springer;Spanish Economic Association, vol. 6(2), pages 207-245, June.
    16. Jordan, James V. & Mansi, Sattar A., 2003. "Term structure estimation from on-the-run Treasuries," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(8), pages 1487-1509, August.
    17. Ranik Raaen Wahlstrøm & Florentina Paraschiv & Michael Schürle, 2022. "A Comparative Analysis of Parsimonious Yield Curve Models with Focus on the Nelson-Siegel, Svensson and Bliss Versions," Computational Economics, Springer;Society for Computational Economics, vol. 59(3), pages 967-1004, March.
    18. Lauren Stagnol, 2019. "Extracting global factors from local yield curves," Journal of Asset Management, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 20(5), pages 341-350, September.
    19. Lauren Stagnol, 2017. "Introducing global term structure in a risk parity framework," EconomiX Working Papers 2017-23, University of Paris Nanterre, EconomiX.
    20. Jens H. E. Christensen & Jose A. Lopez & Glenn D. Rudebusch, 2010. "Inflation Expectations and Risk Premiums in an Arbitrage‐Free Model of Nominal and Real Bond Yields," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 42(s1), pages 143-178, September.
    21. Tong, Xiaojun & He, Zhuoqiong Chong & Sun, Dongchu, 2018. "Estimating Chinese Treasury yield curves with Bayesian smoothing splines," Econometrics and Statistics, Elsevier, vol. 8(C), pages 94-124.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:sae:sagope:v:9:y:2019:i:4:p:2158244019885144. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: SAGE Publications (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.