Energy Taxes and Household Compliance with the Kyoto Protocol
The implementation of tax reforms to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions has become increasingly popular. Nevertheless before prescribing these measures, they should be subject to a cost-benefit analysis. This paper evaluates the effects, in Spain, of a rise in the excise duties on energy to a level equal to the average of the EU-15. To this end, a complete demand model, comprising four energy products and fourteen nonenergy products, is estimated. The results indicate that such a reform, despite the fact that it would reduce CO2 emissions by 11 million tons per year, would produce efficiency costs of 15.88Â¢ for each euro collected, causing households an average annual welfare loss of 228. Moreover, the progressivity and redistributive capacity of Spanish indirect taxation would be also reduced. As a result, the private welfare loss arising from the reform would be approximately four times greater than its estimated social benefits.
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