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Information asymétrique, contraintes de liquidité et investissement

  • Bascuñán, Mauricio

    (Département de sciences économiques, Université de Montréal)

  • Garcia, René

    (Département de sciences économiques, Université de Montréal)

  • Poitevin, Michel

    (Département de sciences économiques, Université de Montréal)

This paper studies the impact of financial market structure on investment decisions by firms using company panel data from six countries: Germany and Japan, where borrower-lender relationships are more of a long-term nature, Canada, France, United Kingdom, and United States, where financial markets tend to favour short-term relationships. Market imperfections between lenders and borrowers should be reduced in financial Systems of the long-term type, allowing firms to rely less on their own cash flows to finance their investments. Our estimation results confirm that in Germany and Japan, coefficients of cash flows and stocks in investment equations are either of small magnitude or not statistically different from zero. Notwithstanding the financial system prevailing in a country, these imperfections should affect more small firms than large firms. Our results show that small firms make more use of their cash flows to finance investment, not only in the United States but also in Japan, which offers more convincing evidence supporting the assumption of financial constraints. Le présent article étudie l’influence de la structure des marchés financiers sur les décisions d’investissement des entreprises à partir de données longitudinales d’entreprises de six pays : l’Allemagne et le Japon d’une part, où s’établissent plutôt des relations de long terme entre prêteurs et emprunteurs, le Canada, les États-Unis, la France et le Royaume-Uni d’autre part, dont les marchés financiers tendent à privilégier les relations de court terme. Les systèmes financiers qui favorisent les relations de long terme devraient réduire les imperfections de marché et permettre donc aux entreprises de moins recourir aux fonds autogénérés pour financer leurs investissements. Les résultats de nos estimations confirment qu’en Allemagne et au Japon, les coefficients des variables de flux et de stocks de liquidités dans les équations d’investissement sont soit faibles soit statistiquement non différents de zéro. Par ailleurs, indépendamment du système financier d’un pays, ces mêmes imperfections devraient se manifester plus dans les petites entreprises que dans les grandes entreprises. Nos résultats montrent effectivement que les petites firmes ont davantage recours à leurs propres fonds pour financer leurs investissements, non seulement aux États-Unis mais encore au Japon, ce qui constitue une confirmation plus convaincante de l’hypothèse des contraintes financières.

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Article provided by Société Canadienne de Science Economique in its journal L'Actualité économique.

Volume (Year): 71 (1995)
Issue (Month): 4 (décembre)
Pages: 398-420

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Handle: RePEc:ris:actuec:v:71:y:1995:i:4:p:398-420
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  1. Garcia, R. & Lusardi, A. & Ng, S., 1995. "Excess Sensitivity and Asymmetries in Consumption: An Empirical Investigation," Cahiers de recherche 9511, Centre interuniversitaire de recherche en économie quantitative, CIREQ.
  2. Fumio Hayashi, 1981. "Tobin's Marginal q and Average a : A Neoclassical Interpretation," Discussion Papers 457, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
  3. Bond, Stephen & Meghir, Costas, 1994. "Dynamic Investment Models and the Firm's Financial Policy," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 61(2), pages 197-222, April.
  4. Jensen, Michael C, 1986. "Agency Costs of Free Cash Flow, Corporate Finance, and Takeovers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(2), pages 323-29, May.
  5. Toni M. Whited, 1990. "Debt, liquidity constraints, and corporate investment: evidence from panel data," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 114, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  6. R. Glenn Hubbard & Anil K Kashyap & Toni M. Whited, 1993. "Internal Finance and Firm Investment," NBER Working Papers 4392, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Elston, Julie, 1997. "A Comparison of Empirical Investment Equations using Company Panel Data for France, Germany, Belgium and the UK," Working Papers 981, California Institute of Technology, Division of the Humanities and Social Sciences.
  8. Tullio Jappelli & Jörn-Steffen Pischke & Nicholas S. Souleles, 1998. "Testing For Liquidity Constraints In Euler Equations With Complementary Data Sources," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 80(2), pages 251-262, May.
  9. Steven M. Fazzari & R. Glenn Hubbard & BRUCE C. PETERSEN, 1988. "Financing Constraints and Corporate Investment," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 19(1), pages 141-206.
  10. Hausman, Jerry A, 1978. "Specification Tests in Econometrics," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(6), pages 1251-71, November.
  11. Oliner, Stephen D & Rudebusch, Glenn D, 1992. "Sources of the Financing Hierarchy for Business Investment," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 74(4), pages 643-54, November.
  12. Ambarish, Ramasastry & John, Kose & Williams, Joseph, 1987. " Efficient Signalling with Dividends and Investments," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 42(2), pages 321-43, June.
  13. Fabio Schiantarelli & Xiaoqiang Hu, 1994. "Investment and Financing Constraints: A Switching Regression Approach Using U.S. Firm Panel Data," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 284., Boston College Department of Economics.
  14. de Meza, David & Webb, David C, 1987. "Too Much Investment: A Problem of Asymmetric Information," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 102(2), pages 281-92, May.
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