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Financing Infrastructure: A Spectrum of Country Approaches


  • Sophia Chong

    (Reserve Bank of Australia)

  • Emily Poole

    (Reserve Bank of Australia)


Over recent decades, there has been a shift away from public infrastructure financing towards private infrastructure financing, particularly in advanced economies. In this article, infrastructure financing in four countries – China, India, Australia and the United Kingdom – is examined to illustrate the different approaches taken by governments to finance infrastructure and encourage private financing. In all four countries, public financing of infrastructure remains significant, ranging from one-third in the United Kingdom to almost all financing in China.

Suggested Citation

  • Sophia Chong & Emily Poole, 2013. "Financing Infrastructure: A Spectrum of Country Approaches," RBA Bulletin (Print copy discontinued), Reserve Bank of Australia, pages 65-76, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:rba:rbabul:sep2013-08

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. David Lancaster & Sarah Dowling, 2011. "The Australian Semi-government Bond Market," RBA Bulletin (Print copy discontinued), Reserve Bank of Australia, pages 49-54, September.
    2. repec:wbk:wbpubs:16055 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Raffaele Della Croce, 2012. "Trends in Large Pension Fund Investment in Infrastructure," OECD Working Papers on Finance, Insurance and Private Pensions 29, OECD Publishing.
    4. Chris Chan & Danny Forwood & Heather Roper & Chris Sayers, 2009. "Public Infrastructure Financing: An International Perspective," Staff Working Papers 0902, Productivity Commission, Government of Australia.
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    Cited by:

    1. Emily Poole & Carl Toohey & Peter Harris, 2014. "Public Infrastructure: A Framework for Decision-making," RBA Annual Conference Volume (Discontinued), in: Alexandra Heath & Matthew Read (ed.),Financial Flows and Infrastructure Financing, Reserve Bank of Australia.
    2. Ivailo Izvorski & Appolenia Mbowe & Bakyt Dubashov & Katharina Gassner & Michael J. Ferrantino & Roumeen Islam & Tarik Sahovic, 2020. "Kyrgyz Republic Country Economic Memorandum," World Bank Other Operational Studies 33494, The World Bank.
    3. De Oliveira Alberto, 2020. "Financial innovations and sanitation services: the battle between low-income users and shareholders," Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series, Sciendo, vol. 47(47), pages 63-74, March.
    4. Ardeshiri, Ali & Rashidi, Taha Hossein, 2020. "Willingness to pay for fast charging station for electric vehicles with limited market penetration making," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 147(C).
    5. Huang, Wei Hong & Chen, Yang & Rudkin, Simon, 2014. "Dynamic Fiscal competition with public infrastructure investment: Austerity and attracting capital inflow," RIEI Working Papers 2014-03, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Research Institute for Economic Integration, revised 02 Mar 2016.
    6. Michael Regan, 2017. "Capital Markets, Infrastructure Investment and Growth in the Asia Pacific Region," International Journal of Financial Studies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 5(1), pages 1-28, February.
    7. Flanagan, Kathleen & Martin, Chris & Jacobs, Keith & Lawson, Julie & Hayward, Richard Donald, 2019. "A conceptual analysis of social housing as infrastructure," SocArXiv wmuc4, Center for Open Science.

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    More about this item


    infrastructure; G20; financing; investment; public-private partnerships; PPPs; China; India; United Kingdom; Australia;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G20 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - General


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