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Exchange Rate Behaviour after Recent Float: The Experience of Pakistan

  • M. Ali Kemal

    (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad.)

  • Rana Murad Haider

    (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad.)

The paper analyses different models to check the behaviour of exchange rate after the recent floating period in July 2000. It is found that the gap between the nominal and real exchange rate has widened after 9/11. Changes in the nominal exchange rate and real exchange rate are highly correlated and relative prices are not significantly correlated with the nominal exchange rate. Moreover, the exchange rate did not capture frequent changes in relative prices, which implies that PPP does not hold for the recent floating period. Real exchange rate always overshoots in response to exogenous shocks and then adjusts back to restore the equilibrium, although the adjustment process varies by country. The real exchange rate is not completely a random walk model and the movements are also explained by other fundamentals. It is safer to keep reserves in dollar and yen than in any other currency.

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Article provided by Pakistan Institute of Development Economics in its journal The Pakistan Development Review.

Volume (Year): 43 (2004)
Issue (Month): 4 ()
Pages: 829-852

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Handle: RePEc:pid:journl:v:43:y:2004:i:4:p:829-852
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  1. Maurice Obstfeld & Kenneth Rogoff, 1983. "Exchange rate dynamics with sluggish prices under alternative price- adjustment rules," International Finance Discussion Papers 223, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  2. O'Connell, Paul G. J., 1998. "The overvaluation of purchasing power parity," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 1-19, February.
  3. Frenkel, Jacob A, 1976. " A Monetary Approach to the Exchange Rate: Doctrinal Aspects and Empirical Evidence," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 78(2), pages 200-224.
  4. Maurice Obstfeld & Alan M. Taylor, 1997. "Nonlinear Aspects of Goods-Market Arbitrage and Adjustment: Heckscher's Commodity Points Revisited," NBER Working Papers 6053, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Mark P. Taylor, 1995. "The Economics of Exchange Rates," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 33(1), pages 13-47, March.
  6. Meese, R. & Rogoff, K., 1988. "Was It Real? The Exchange Rate-Interest Differential Ralation Over The Modern Floating-Rate Period," Working papers 368, Wisconsin Madison - Social Systems.
  7. Hassan Shirvani & Barry Wilbratte, 1997. "The Relationship Between The Real Exchange Rate and The Trade Balance: An Empirical Reassessment," International Economic Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(1), pages 39-50.
  8. Rogoff, Kenneth, 1999. "Monetary Models of Dollar/Yen/Euro Nominal Exchange Rates: Dead or Undead?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 109(459), pages F655-59, November.
  9. MacDonald, Ronald & Taylor, Mark P., 1994. "The monetary model of the exchange rate: long-run relationships, short-run dynamics and how to beat a random walk," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 276-290, June.
  10. Ehsan U. Choudhri & Mohsin S. Khan, 2002. "The Exchange Rate and Consumer Prices in Pakistan: Is Rupee Devaluation In Inflationary?," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 41(2), pages 107-120.
  11. Baxter, Marianne, 1994. "Real exchange rates and real interest differentials: Have we missed the business-cycle relationship?," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 5-37, February.
  12. Mark, Nelson C. & Choi, Doo-Yull, 1997. "Real exchange-rate prediction over long horizons," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(1-2), pages 29-60, August.
  13. MacDonald, Ronald, 1999. "Exchange Rate Behaviour: Are Fundamentals Important?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 109(459), pages F673-91, November.
  14. Razzaque H. Bhatti, 1997. "Do Expectations Play Any Role in Determining Pak Rupee Exchange Rates?," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 36(3), pages 263-273.
  15. Shaista Alam & Muhammad Sabihuddin Butt & Azhar Iqbal, 2001. "The Long-run Relationship between Real Exchange Rate and Real Interest Rate in Asian Countries: An Application of Panel Cointegration," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 40(4), pages 577-602.
  16. Dornbusch, Rudiger, 1976. "Expectations and Exchange Rate Dynamics," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 84(6), pages 1161-76, December.
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