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Scale and Scope Economies in Banking: A Case Study of the Agricultural Development Bank of Pakistan

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  • Musleh-Ud Din

    (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad.)

  • Ejaz Ghani

    (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad.)

  • Sarfraz K. Qureshi

    (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad.)

Abstract

This paper examines the scale and scope efficiency of the Agricultural Development Bank of Pakistan. Using the production approach to measuring bank outputs and costs, a translog cost function is estimated to provide an assessment of the bank’s scale and scope efficiency, and to quantify the extent to which its production costs are sensitive to size and output mix. Our results show that the bank enjoys both overall and product-specific economies of scale and, therefore, there exists scope for the bank to expand its operations at declining average cost. We show that even though bank branches in all size categories enjoy economies of scale, the extent of such economies is larger for branches operating at a smaller scale of production. This implies that as the bank branches grow larger in size in terms of both loan and deposit accounts, they move closer to attaining constant returns to scale. It is also shown that the marginal costs of servicing both loan and deposit accounts decline as bank branches grow larger in size in terms of either the number of loans or the number of deposits. This confirms that branches operating at a larger scale of production have attained greater cost efficiency in terms of servicing the loan and deposit accounts. As regards economies of scope, our results show that the bank’s production technology is characterised by cost complementarity, which gives rise to cost savings through the joint production of loan and deposit accounts.

Suggested Citation

  • Musleh-Ud Din & Ejaz Ghani & Sarfraz K. Qureshi, 1996. "Scale and Scope Economies in Banking: A Case Study of the Agricultural Development Bank of Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 35(3), pages 203-213.
  • Handle: RePEc:pid:journl:v:35:y:1996:i:3:p:203-213
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Gropper, Daniel M, 1991. "An Empirical Investigation of Changes in Scale Economies for the Commercial Banking Firm, 1979-1986," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 23(4), pages 718-727, November.
    2. Roller, Lars-Hendrik, 1990. "Proper Quadratic Cost Functions with an Application to the Bell System," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 72(2), pages 202-210, May.
    3. Baumol, William J, 1982. "Contestable Markets: An Uprising in the Theory of Industry Structure," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(1), pages 1-15, March.
    4. Berger, Allen N. & Hanweck, Gerald A. & Humphrey, David B., 1987. "Competitive viability in banking : Scale, scope, and product mix economies," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 501-520, December.
    5. Willig, Robert D, 1979. "Multiproduct Technology and Market Structure," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 69(2), pages 346-351, May.
    6. Mitchell, Karlyn & Onvural, Nur M, 1996. "Economies of Scale and Scope at Large Commercial Banks: Evidence from the Fourier Flexible Functional Form," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 28(2), pages 178-199, May.
    7. Hunter, William C & Timme, Stephen G, 1986. "Technical Change, Organizational Form, and the Structure of Bank Production," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 18(2), pages 152-166, May.
    8. Adar, Zvi & Agmon, Tamir & Orgler, Yair E, 1975. "Output Mix and Jointness in Production in the Banking Firm," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 7(2), pages 235-243, May.
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    Cited by:

    1. Ahmad, Usman, 2011. "Financial Reforms and Banking Efficiency: Case of Pakistan," MPRA Paper 34220, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Abdul Qayyum & Sajawal Khan, 2006. "X-efficiency, Scale Economies, Technological Progress, and Competition: The Banking Sector in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 45(4), pages 733-748.
    3. Abdul Qayyum & Sajawal Khan, 2007. "X-efficiency, Scale Economies, Technological Progress and Competition : A Case of Banking Sector in Pakistan," Finance Working Papers 22217, East Asian Bureau of Economic Research.
    4. Adiqa Kiani, 2005. "A Comparison of Domestic Vs Foreign Banks Using Stochastic Frontier Approach," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 10(2), pages 55-74, Jul-Dec.
    5. Qayyum, Abdul & Khan, Sajawal, 2006. "X-efficiency, scale economies, Technological Progress and Competition of Pakistani’s banks," MPRA Paper 2654, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2006.

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